Inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase, advanced glycation end products (AGEs) formation, and oxidative stress by isolated active constituents of Osmanthus fragrans flowers (9,12-octadecadienoic acid and 4-(2,6,6-trimethyl-1-cyclohexenyl)-3-buten-2-one) and their structural analogues were evaluated. 9,12-Octadecadienoic acid was 10.02 and 22.21 times more active against α-amylase and α-glucosidase, respectively, than acarbose and ascorbic acid, followed by 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid, 9-octadecenoic acid, 4-(2,6,6-trimethyl-1-cyclohexenyl)-3-buten-2-one, 4-(2,6,6-trimethyl-2-cyclohexenyl)-3-buten-2-one, 1-heptadecanecarboxylic acid, and 1-pentadecanecarboxylic acid. Concerning the inhibition of AGEs formation, similar with data for 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazl radical scavenging activities, 9,12-octadecadienoic acid was 3.54 times more active than aminoguanidine, followed by 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid, and 9-octadecenoic acid. These results indicate that 4-(2,6,6-trimethyl-1-cyclohexenyl)-3-buten-2-one, 9,12-octadecadienoic acid and their analogues inhibit α-amylase and α-glucosidase, AGEs formation, and oxidative stress have potential value in alleviating diabetic pathological conditions.
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