Interactive influences of demographics on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the demographics-adjusted norms for MMSE in elderly Koreans

Jeong Lan Kim, Joon Hyuk Park, Bong Jo Kim, Moon Doo Kim, Shin Kyum Kim, Yeon Kyung Chi, Tae Hui Kim, Seok Woo Moon, Moon Ho Park, Jae Nam Bae, Jong Inn Woo, Seung Ho Ryu, Jong Chul Yoon, Nam Jin Lee, Dong Young Lee, Dong Woo Lee, Seok Bum Lee, Jung Jae Lee, Chang Uk Lee, Sung Man ChangJi Won Han, Jin Hyeong Jhoo, Changsu Han, Maeng Je Cho, Ki Woong Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Background: The influences of demographics, culture, language, and environmental changes on Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores are considerable. Methods: Using a sample of 7452 healthy, community-dwelling elderly Koreans, aged 55 to 94 years, who participated in the four ongoing geriatric cohorts in Korea, we investigated demographic influences on MMSE scores and derived normative data for this population. Geropsychiatrists strictly excluded subjects with cognitive disorders according to the protocol of the Korean version of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Packet (CERAD-K) Clinical Assessment Battery (CERAD-K-C). Results: Education (standardized β = 0.463), age (standardized β = -0.303), and gender (standardized β = -0.057) had significant effects on MMSE scores (p < 0.001). The score of MMSE increase 0.379 point per 1-year education, decrease 0.188 per 1-year older, and decrease 0.491 in women compared to men. Education explained 30.4% of the scores' total variance, which was much larger than the variances explained by age (8.4%) or gender (0.3%). Accordingly, we present normative data for the MMSE stratified by education (0, 1-3, 4-6, 7-9, 10-12, and ≥ 13 years), age (60-69, 70-79, and 80-89 years), and gender. Conclusions: We provide contemporary education-, age-, and gender-stratified norms for the MMSE, derived from a large, community-dwelling elderly Korean population sample, which could be useful in evaluating individual MMSE scores.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)642-650
Number of pages9
JournalInternational Psychogeriatrics
Volume24
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2012 Apr 1

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Demography
Education
Independent Living
Korea
Geriatrics
Population
Registries
Alzheimer Disease
Language

Keywords

  • age
  • education
  • elders
  • Korean
  • lexical verbal fluency
  • normative data

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Psychology
  • Gerontology
  • Geriatrics and Gerontology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

Cite this

Interactive influences of demographics on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the demographics-adjusted norms for MMSE in elderly Koreans. / Kim, Jeong Lan; Park, Joon Hyuk; Kim, Bong Jo; Kim, Moon Doo; Kim, Shin Kyum; Chi, Yeon Kyung; Kim, Tae Hui; Moon, Seok Woo; Park, Moon Ho; Bae, Jae Nam; Woo, Jong Inn; Ryu, Seung Ho; Yoon, Jong Chul; Lee, Nam Jin; Lee, Dong Young; Lee, Dong Woo; Lee, Seok Bum; Lee, Jung Jae; Lee, Chang Uk; Chang, Sung Man; Han, Ji Won; Jhoo, Jin Hyeong; Han, Changsu; Cho, Maeng Je; Kim, Ki Woong.

In: International Psychogeriatrics, Vol. 24, No. 4, 01.04.2012, p. 642-650.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Kim, JL, Park, JH, Kim, BJ, Kim, MD, Kim, SK, Chi, YK, Kim, TH, Moon, SW, Park, MH, Bae, JN, Woo, JI, Ryu, SH, Yoon, JC, Lee, NJ, Lee, DY, Lee, DW, Lee, SB, Lee, JJ, Lee, CU, Chang, SM, Han, JW, Jhoo, JH, Han, C, Cho, MJ & Kim, KW 2012, 'Interactive influences of demographics on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the demographics-adjusted norms for MMSE in elderly Koreans', International Psychogeriatrics, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 642-650. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1041610211002456
Kim, Jeong Lan ; Park, Joon Hyuk ; Kim, Bong Jo ; Kim, Moon Doo ; Kim, Shin Kyum ; Chi, Yeon Kyung ; Kim, Tae Hui ; Moon, Seok Woo ; Park, Moon Ho ; Bae, Jae Nam ; Woo, Jong Inn ; Ryu, Seung Ho ; Yoon, Jong Chul ; Lee, Nam Jin ; Lee, Dong Young ; Lee, Dong Woo ; Lee, Seok Bum ; Lee, Jung Jae ; Lee, Chang Uk ; Chang, Sung Man ; Han, Ji Won ; Jhoo, Jin Hyeong ; Han, Changsu ; Cho, Maeng Je ; Kim, Ki Woong. / Interactive influences of demographics on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the demographics-adjusted norms for MMSE in elderly Koreans. In: International Psychogeriatrics. 2012 ; Vol. 24, No. 4. pp. 642-650.
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T1 - Interactive influences of demographics on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the demographics-adjusted norms for MMSE in elderly Koreans

AU - Kim, Jeong Lan

AU - Park, Joon Hyuk

AU - Kim, Bong Jo

AU - Kim, Moon Doo

AU - Kim, Shin Kyum

AU - Chi, Yeon Kyung

AU - Kim, Tae Hui

AU - Moon, Seok Woo

AU - Park, Moon Ho

AU - Bae, Jae Nam

AU - Woo, Jong Inn

AU - Ryu, Seung Ho

AU - Yoon, Jong Chul

AU - Lee, Nam Jin

AU - Lee, Dong Young

AU - Lee, Dong Woo

AU - Lee, Seok Bum

AU - Lee, Jung Jae

AU - Lee, Chang Uk

AU - Chang, Sung Man

AU - Han, Ji Won

AU - Jhoo, Jin Hyeong

AU - Han, Changsu

AU - Cho, Maeng Je

AU - Kim, Ki Woong

PY - 2012/4/1

Y1 - 2012/4/1

N2 - Background: The influences of demographics, culture, language, and environmental changes on Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores are considerable. Methods: Using a sample of 7452 healthy, community-dwelling elderly Koreans, aged 55 to 94 years, who participated in the four ongoing geriatric cohorts in Korea, we investigated demographic influences on MMSE scores and derived normative data for this population. Geropsychiatrists strictly excluded subjects with cognitive disorders according to the protocol of the Korean version of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Packet (CERAD-K) Clinical Assessment Battery (CERAD-K-C). Results: Education (standardized β = 0.463), age (standardized β = -0.303), and gender (standardized β = -0.057) had significant effects on MMSE scores (p < 0.001). The score of MMSE increase 0.379 point per 1-year education, decrease 0.188 per 1-year older, and decrease 0.491 in women compared to men. Education explained 30.4% of the scores' total variance, which was much larger than the variances explained by age (8.4%) or gender (0.3%). Accordingly, we present normative data for the MMSE stratified by education (0, 1-3, 4-6, 7-9, 10-12, and ≥ 13 years), age (60-69, 70-79, and 80-89 years), and gender. Conclusions: We provide contemporary education-, age-, and gender-stratified norms for the MMSE, derived from a large, community-dwelling elderly Korean population sample, which could be useful in evaluating individual MMSE scores.

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