Intermediate Phase-Free Process for Methylammonium Lead Iodide Thin Film for High-Efficiency Perovskite Solar Cells

Yeonghun Yun, Devthade Vidyasagar, Minho Lee, Oh Yeong Gong, Jina Jung, Hyun Suk Jung, Dong Hoe Kim, Sangwook Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)


Solvent engineering by Lewis-base solvent and anti-solvent is well known for forming uniform and stable perovskite thin films. The perovskite phase crystallizes from an intermediate Lewis-adduct upon annealing-induced crystallization. Herein, it is explored the effects of trimethyl phosphate (TMP), as a novel aprotic Lewis-base solvent with a low donor number for the perovskite film formation and photovoltaic characteristics of perovskite solar cells (PSCs). As compared to dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) or dimethylformamide (DMF), the usage of TMP directly crystallizes the perovskite phase, i.e., reduces the intermediate phase to a negligible degree, right after the spin-coating, owing to the high miscibility of TMP with the anti-solvent and weak bonding in the Lewis adduct. Interestingly, the PSCs based on methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) derived from TMP/DMF-mixed solvent exhibit a higher average power conversion efficiency of 19.68% (the best: 20.02%) with a smaller hysteresis in the current-voltage curve, compared to the PSCs that are fabricated using DMSO/DMF-mixed (19.14%) or DMF-only (18.55%) solvents. The superior photovoltaic properties are attributed to the lower defect density of the TMP/DMF-derived perovskite film. The results indicate that a high-performance PSC can be achieved by combining a weak Lewis base with a well-established solvent engineering process.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2102492
JournalAdvanced Science
Issue number21
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Nov 3


  • Lewis base
  • defect density
  • donor number
  • intermediate phase
  • perovskite solar cells

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology (miscellaneous)
  • Engineering(all)
  • Physics and Astronomy(all)


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