Purpose To assess the in vivo whole-brain relationship between uptake of [18F]THK-5351 on PET and cortical atrophy on structural MRI according to the presence and severity of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Materials and methods Sixty-five participants (21 normal controls, 32 mild cognitive impairment [MCI] subjects, and 12 AD patients) were enrolled from a prospective multicenter clinical trial (NCT02656498). Structural MRI and [18F]THK-5351 PET were performed within a 2-month interval. Cortical volume and standardized uptake value ratios (SUVR) were calculated from MRI and PET images, respectively, for 35 FreeSurfer-derived cortical regions. Pearson’s correlation coefficients between SUVR and cortical volume were calculated for the same regions, and correlated regions were compared according to disease severity and β-amyloid PET positivity. Results No significantly correlated regions were found in the normal controls. Negative correlations between SUVR and cortical volume were found in the MCI and AD groups, mainly in limbic locations in MCI and isocortical locations in AD. The AD group exhibited stronger correlations (r = −0.576–0.781) than the MCI group (r = 0.368–0.571). Hippocampal atrophy did not show any correlation with SUVR in the β-amyloid PET-negative group, but negatively correlated with SUVR (r = −0.494, P = .012) in the β-amyloid PET-positive group. Conclusions Regional THK-5351 uptake correlated more strongly with cortical atrophy in AD compared with MCI, thereby demonstrating a close relationship between the neuro-pathologic process and cortical atrophy. Hippocampal atrophy was associated with both β-amyloid and THK-5351 uptake, possibly reflecting an interaction between β-amyloid and tau deposition in the neurodegeneration process.
|Publication status||Published - 2019 Dec 1|
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