The present study investigated the role of peripheral opioid receptors in mustard oil-induced nociceptive behavior and inflammation in the masseter muscles of lightly anesthetized rats. Experiments were carried out on male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing between 300 and 400 g. After initial anesthesia with sodium pentobarbital (40 mg/kg, i.p.), one femoral vein was cannulated and connected to an infusion pump for the intravenous infusion of sodium pentobarbital. The rate of infusion was adjusted to provide a constant level of anesthesia. Mustard oil (MO, 30 μl) was injected into the mid-region of the left masseter muscle via a 30-gauge needle. Intramuscularly-administered morphine significantly reduced shaking behavior but not MO-induced inflammation. Intramuscular pretreatment with naloxone, an opioid receptor antagonist, reversed antinociception produced by intramuscularly-administered morphine, while intracisternal administration of naloxone did not affect the antinociception of peripheral morphine. Pretreatment with d-Pen-Cys-Tyr-d-Trp-Orn-Thr-Pen-Thr-NH2 (CTOP), a μ opioid receptor antagonist, but not naltrindole, a δ opioid receptor antagonist, nor norbinaltorphimine (nor-BNI), a κ opioid receptor antagonist, reversed intramuscularly-administered morphine-induced antinociception. These results indicate that intramuscularly-administered morphine produces antinociception in craniofacial muscle nociception and that this intramuscularly-administered morphine-induced antinociception is mediated by a peripheral μ opioid receptor. Our observations further support the clinical approach of administering opioids in the periphery for the treatment of craniofacial muscle nociception.
- Muscle pain
- Nociceptive behavior
- Peripheral opioid receptors
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine