Background The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability of pre-, intra operative, and postoperative limb alignment measurements and investigate the correlation between the measurements in biplanar medial opening-wedge high tibial osteotomy. Methods This study enrolled 59 knees undergoing biplanar opening-wedge high tibial osteotomy for primary medial osteoarthritis with varus deformity. Preoperative and postoperative standing lower leg radiographs and intraoperative fluoroscopic images were taken. Two independent examiners analyzed the radiologic data to assess lower limb alignment and mechanical axis (MA) deviation (percentage of MA position on tibial plateau). The effect of preoperative hip-knee-ankle angle and MA deviation, age, sex, body mass index (BMI), and joint line convergence angle on the discrepancy between intraoperative and postoperative MA deviation was analyzed. Results The mean preoperative hip-knee-ankle angle and MA deviation were varus 7.7 ± 3.3° and 14.1 ± 15.1%, respectively. After osteotomy, the mean intraoperative postosteotomy MA deviation was 57.9 ± 2.1% in supine position, and the mean post-operative MA deviation increased to 63.9 ± 2.9% on standing radiographs. The mean difference between intraoperative postosteotomy MA deviation and postoperative MA deviation was 6.1 ± 2.2%. Linear regression analysis between intraoperative postosteotomy MA deviation and postoperative MA deviation showed a statistically significant linear relationship (R2 = 0.449; P < .001). Multivariate regression analysis revealed that preoperative joint line convergence angle (β = 0.856; P < .001) and BMI (β = 0.349; P < .001) were significant positive predictors for the difference in MA deviation. Conclusion There was a significant linear relationship between intraoperative postosteotomy MA deviation and postoperative MA deviation following biplanar medial opening-wedge high tibial osteotomy. A greater discrepancy between MA deviations was significantly associated with higher BMI and joint line convergence angle.
- high tibial osteotomy
- intraoperative lower limb alignment
- knee joint
- medial compartmental osteoarthritis
- postoperative lower limb alignment
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Orthopedics and Sports Medicine