Investigation of damage caused by partial shading of CuInxGa(1-x)Se2 photovoltaic modules with bypass diodes

Ji Eun Lee, Soohyun Bae, Wonwook Oh, Hyomin Park, Soo Min Kim, Dongho Lee, Junggyu Nam, Chan Bin Mo, Dongseop Kim, Jung Yup Yang, Yoon Mook Kang, Haeseok Lee, Donghwan Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Citations (Scopus)


This study evaluated the impact of partial shading on CuInxGa(1-x)Se2 (CIGS) photovoltaic (PV) modules equipped with bypass diodes. When the CIGS PV modules were partially shaded, they were subjected to partial reverse bias, leading to the formation of hotspots and a possible occurrence of junction damage. In a module with a cadmium sulfide buffer layer, hotspots and wormlike defects were formed. The hotspots were formed as soon as the modules were shaded; the hotspots caused permanent damage (wormlike defects) in the CIGS module. Specifically, the wormlike defects were caused by the window layer, leading to increased recombination and decay of the solar cell properties. However, a CIGS module with a zinc sulfide buffer layer did not exhibit the formation of hotspots or any visual damage. The reverse bias breakdown voltage of the CIGS PV module with the cadmium sulfide buffer layer was higher than that of the CIGS PV module with the zinc sulfide buffer layer.

Original languageEnglish
JournalProgress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2016


  • Bypass diode
  • Cu(In,Ga)Se module
  • Hotspot
  • Partial shading
  • Reliability
  • Wormlike defect

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics

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