Hemoglobin (Hb) is a major oxygen-transporting protein with allosteric properties reflected in the structural changes that accompany binding of O2. Glycated hemoglobin (GHb), which is a minor component of human red cell hemolysate, is generated by a nonenzymatic reaction between glucose and hemoglobin. Due to the long lifetime of human erythrocytes (∼120 days), GHb is widely used as a reliable biomarker for monitoring long-term glucose control in diabetic patients. Although the structure of GHb differs from that of Hb, structural changes relating to the oxygen affinity of these proteins remain incompletely understood. In this study, the oxygen-binding kinetics of Hb and GHb are evaluated, and their structural dynamics are investigated using solution small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), electrospray ionization mass spectrometry equipped with ion mobility spectrometry (ESI-IM-MS), and molecular dynamic (MD) simulations to understand the impact of structural alteration on their oxygen-binding properties. Our results show that the oxygen-binding kinetics of GHb are diminished relative to those of Hb. ESI-IM-MS reveals structural differences between Hb and GHb, which indicate the preference of GHb for a more compact structure in the gas phase relative to Hb. MD simulations also reveal an enhancement of intramolecular interactions upon glycation of Hb. Therefore, the more rigid structure of GHb makes the conformational changes that facilitate oxygen capture more difficult creating a delay in the oxygen-binding process. Our multiple biophysical approaches provide a better understanding of the allosteric properties of hemoglobin that are reflected in the structural alterations accompanying oxygen binding.
|Number of pages||8|
|Journal||Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry|
|Publication status||Published - 2021 Oct 6|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Structural Biology