Irreversible effects of long-term chronic smoking on arterial stiffness

An analysis focusing on ex-smokers among otherwise healthy middle-aged men

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Objective: Smoking is a modifiable cardiovascular risk factor closely related to arterial stiffness (AS). However, data are lacking regarding the chronic effects of smoking on AS, especially in ex-smoker (ES) who faces remnant cardiovascular risk when compared to never-smokers (NS). Methods: Among 1722 health screening participants, we retrospectively evaluated 652 healthy men with different smoking history [240 current smoker (CS) vs. 228 ES vs. 184 NS]. To assess AS, augmentation index (AIx), pulse pressure amplification (PPamp), and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) were measured and compared. Results: Baseline characteristics were similar except age and triglyceride level. AIx was lowest in NS, followed by ES, and was highest in CS. PPamp was highest in NS, lowest in CS, and ES was of intermediate level. The differences were more robust after adjustment for baseline covariates (AIx, p = 0.005; PPamp: p = 0.001). On the other hand, no significant intergroup difference was observed for cfPWV in our middle-aged population. With the regression analyses revealing an independent association between smoking duration and AS in ES, subgroup analysis demonstrated that long-term ES (smoking duration ≥20 years) had significantly higher AS than short-term ES (<20 years) and NS, approaching levels comparable to CS (AIx and PPamp: p < 0.0001). Conclusions: Our study demonstrated impaired arterial elastic properties in long-term ES, suggesting that AS caused by chronic smoking might be irreversible even after smoking cessation. Further longitudinal studies are warranted to determine the impacts of past smoking on AS and its clinical relevance.

Original languageEnglish
JournalClinical and Experimental Hypertension
DOIs
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2018 Jan 1

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Vascular Stiffness
Smoking
Blood Pressure
Pulse Wave Analysis
Thigh
Smoking Cessation
Longitudinal Studies
Triglycerides
History
Regression Analysis
Health
Population

Keywords

  • arterial stiffness
  • Ex-smoker
  • irreversible effect
  • Smoking
  • smoking cessation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Physiology

Cite this

@article{65c70f827a05429eba4a739cd357d373,
title = "Irreversible effects of long-term chronic smoking on arterial stiffness: An analysis focusing on ex-smokers among otherwise healthy middle-aged men",
abstract = "Objective: Smoking is a modifiable cardiovascular risk factor closely related to arterial stiffness (AS). However, data are lacking regarding the chronic effects of smoking on AS, especially in ex-smoker (ES) who faces remnant cardiovascular risk when compared to never-smokers (NS). Methods: Among 1722 health screening participants, we retrospectively evaluated 652 healthy men with different smoking history [240 current smoker (CS) vs. 228 ES vs. 184 NS]. To assess AS, augmentation index (AIx), pulse pressure amplification (PPamp), and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) were measured and compared. Results: Baseline characteristics were similar except age and triglyceride level. AIx was lowest in NS, followed by ES, and was highest in CS. PPamp was highest in NS, lowest in CS, and ES was of intermediate level. The differences were more robust after adjustment for baseline covariates (AIx, p = 0.005; PPamp: p = 0.001). On the other hand, no significant intergroup difference was observed for cfPWV in our middle-aged population. With the regression analyses revealing an independent association between smoking duration and AS in ES, subgroup analysis demonstrated that long-term ES (smoking duration ≥20 years) had significantly higher AS than short-term ES (<20 years) and NS, approaching levels comparable to CS (AIx and PPamp: p < 0.0001). Conclusions: Our study demonstrated impaired arterial elastic properties in long-term ES, suggesting that AS caused by chronic smoking might be irreversible even after smoking cessation. Further longitudinal studies are warranted to determine the impacts of past smoking on AS and its clinical relevance.",
keywords = "arterial stiffness, Ex-smoker, irreversible effect, Smoking, smoking cessation",
author = "Sunwon Kim and Lee, {Sun Ju} and Kim, {Yong Hyun} and Jin-Seok Kim and Lim, {Sang Yeob} and Kim, {Seong Hwan} and Ahn, {Jeong Cheon} and Woohyuk Song and Jee, {Sun Ha} and Park, {Chang Gyu}",
year = "2018",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1080/10641963.2018.1557677",
language = "English",
journal = "Clinical and Experimental Hypertension",
issn = "1064-1963",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Irreversible effects of long-term chronic smoking on arterial stiffness

T2 - An analysis focusing on ex-smokers among otherwise healthy middle-aged men

AU - Kim, Sunwon

AU - Lee, Sun Ju

AU - Kim, Yong Hyun

AU - Kim, Jin-Seok

AU - Lim, Sang Yeob

AU - Kim, Seong Hwan

AU - Ahn, Jeong Cheon

AU - Song, Woohyuk

AU - Jee, Sun Ha

AU - Park, Chang Gyu

PY - 2018/1/1

Y1 - 2018/1/1

N2 - Objective: Smoking is a modifiable cardiovascular risk factor closely related to arterial stiffness (AS). However, data are lacking regarding the chronic effects of smoking on AS, especially in ex-smoker (ES) who faces remnant cardiovascular risk when compared to never-smokers (NS). Methods: Among 1722 health screening participants, we retrospectively evaluated 652 healthy men with different smoking history [240 current smoker (CS) vs. 228 ES vs. 184 NS]. To assess AS, augmentation index (AIx), pulse pressure amplification (PPamp), and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) were measured and compared. Results: Baseline characteristics were similar except age and triglyceride level. AIx was lowest in NS, followed by ES, and was highest in CS. PPamp was highest in NS, lowest in CS, and ES was of intermediate level. The differences were more robust after adjustment for baseline covariates (AIx, p = 0.005; PPamp: p = 0.001). On the other hand, no significant intergroup difference was observed for cfPWV in our middle-aged population. With the regression analyses revealing an independent association between smoking duration and AS in ES, subgroup analysis demonstrated that long-term ES (smoking duration ≥20 years) had significantly higher AS than short-term ES (<20 years) and NS, approaching levels comparable to CS (AIx and PPamp: p < 0.0001). Conclusions: Our study demonstrated impaired arterial elastic properties in long-term ES, suggesting that AS caused by chronic smoking might be irreversible even after smoking cessation. Further longitudinal studies are warranted to determine the impacts of past smoking on AS and its clinical relevance.

AB - Objective: Smoking is a modifiable cardiovascular risk factor closely related to arterial stiffness (AS). However, data are lacking regarding the chronic effects of smoking on AS, especially in ex-smoker (ES) who faces remnant cardiovascular risk when compared to never-smokers (NS). Methods: Among 1722 health screening participants, we retrospectively evaluated 652 healthy men with different smoking history [240 current smoker (CS) vs. 228 ES vs. 184 NS]. To assess AS, augmentation index (AIx), pulse pressure amplification (PPamp), and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) were measured and compared. Results: Baseline characteristics were similar except age and triglyceride level. AIx was lowest in NS, followed by ES, and was highest in CS. PPamp was highest in NS, lowest in CS, and ES was of intermediate level. The differences were more robust after adjustment for baseline covariates (AIx, p = 0.005; PPamp: p = 0.001). On the other hand, no significant intergroup difference was observed for cfPWV in our middle-aged population. With the regression analyses revealing an independent association between smoking duration and AS in ES, subgroup analysis demonstrated that long-term ES (smoking duration ≥20 years) had significantly higher AS than short-term ES (<20 years) and NS, approaching levels comparable to CS (AIx and PPamp: p < 0.0001). Conclusions: Our study demonstrated impaired arterial elastic properties in long-term ES, suggesting that AS caused by chronic smoking might be irreversible even after smoking cessation. Further longitudinal studies are warranted to determine the impacts of past smoking on AS and its clinical relevance.

KW - arterial stiffness

KW - Ex-smoker

KW - irreversible effect

KW - Smoking

KW - smoking cessation

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U2 - 10.1080/10641963.2018.1557677

DO - 10.1080/10641963.2018.1557677

M3 - Article

JO - Clinical and Experimental Hypertension

JF - Clinical and Experimental Hypertension

SN - 1064-1963

ER -