Abstract: The aim of this study was to isolate monogalactosyldiacylglycerols (MGDGs) and digalactosyldiacylglycerols (DGDGs) from perilla [Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton] and to investigate their fatty acid profiles. Perilla displayed the greatest total MGDG and DGDG content among the three types of leaf vegetables tested, that is, spinach, parsley, and perilla, containing 0.16 g/100 g MGDG and 0.04 g/100 g DGDG (on wet weight basis). High purity MGDG (approximately 97 g/100 g) and DGDG (approximately 86 g/100 g) were isolated from perilla chloroform/methanol (2:1, v/v) extracts by two-step silica gel column chromatography. MGDGs were primarily composed of 18:3n-3 and 16:3n-3, predominantly located at the sn-1 and sn-2 positions, respectively. In DGDG, 18:3n-3 and 16:0 were the most abundant fatty acids and were primarily found at the sn-1 and sn-2 positions, respectively. Practical Application: MGDGs and DGDGs are the most prevalent forms of galactoglycerolipids found in leaf vegetables including perilla and have been shown to exert health-beneficial effects, such as antitumor, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and appetite-suppressing activities. Both MGDGs and DGDGs possess emulsifying properties. The present study may help better understand the health-beneficial effects of MGDG and DGDG from perilla, by providing total composition and positional distribution of the fatty acids. The present study also successfully established a protocol to isolate high purity MGDG and DGDG from perilla, thereby increasing their possible use as an ingredient in foods and nutraceuticals.
- fatty acid profile
- two-step silica gel column chromatography
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Food Science