Isospin Tracing: A Probe of Nonequilibrium in Central Heavy-Ion Collisions

F. Rami, Y. Leifels, B. De Schauenburg, A. Gobbi, Byungsik Hong, J. P. Alard, A. Andronic, R. Averbeck, V. Barret, Z. Basrak, N. Bastid, I. Belyaev, A. Bendarag, G. Berek, R. Čaplar, N. Cindro, P. Crochet, A. Devismes, P. Dupieux, M. DželalijaM. Eskef, C. Finck, Z. Fodor, H. Folger, L. Fraysse, A. Genoux-Lubain, Y. Grigorian, Y. Grishkin, N. Herrmann, K. D. Hildenbrand, J. Kecskemeti, Y. J. Kim, P. Koczon, M. Kirejczyk, M. Korolija, R. Kotte, M. Kowalczyk, T. Kress, R. Kutsche, A. Lebedev, K. S. Lee, V. Manko, H. Merlitz, S. Mohren, D. Moisa, J. Mösner, W. Neubert, A. Nianine, D. Pelte, M. Petrovici, C. Pinkenburg, C. Plettner, W. Reisdorf, J. Ritman, D. Schüll, Z. Seres, B. Sikora, K. S. Sim, V. Simion, K. Siwek-Wilczyńska, A. Somov, M. R. Stockmeier, G. Stoicea, M. Vasiliev, P. Wagner, K. Wiśniewski, D. Wohlfarth, J. T. Yang, I. Yushmanov, A. Zhilin

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124 Citations (Scopus)


Four different combinations of 44 93Ru and 40 96Zr nuclei, both as projectile and target, were investigated at the same bombarding energy of 400A MeV using a 4π detector. The degree of isospin mixing between projectile and target nucleons is mapped across a large portion of the phase space using two different isospin-tracer observables, the number of measured protons and the tritium to 3He yield ratio. The experimental results show that the global equilibrium is not reached even in the most central collisions. Quantitative measures of stopping and mixing are extracted from the data. They are found to exhibit a quite strong sensitivity to the in-medium (n,n) cross section used in microscopic transport calculations.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1120-1123
Number of pages4
JournalPhysical Review Letters
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2000 Feb 7


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physics and Astronomy(all)

Cite this

Rami, F., Leifels, Y., De Schauenburg, B., Gobbi, A., Hong, B., Alard, J. P., Andronic, A., Averbeck, R., Barret, V., Basrak, Z., Bastid, N., Belyaev, I., Bendarag, A., Berek, G., Čaplar, R., Cindro, N., Crochet, P., Devismes, A., Dupieux, P., ... Zhilin, A. (2000). Isospin Tracing: A Probe of Nonequilibrium in Central Heavy-Ion Collisions. Physical Review Letters, 84(6), 1120-1123.