Kinetics of neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 infection according to sex, age, and disease severity

Yoonjung Kim, Joon Yong Bae, Kitae Kwon, Hyun Ha Chang, Won Kee Lee, Heedo Park, Jeonghun Kim, Isaac Choi, Man Seong Park, Shin Woo Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Knowledge of the factors affecting the difference in kinetics and longevity of the neutralizing antibody (nAb) response to SARS-CoV-2 is necessary to properly prioritize vaccination. In the present study, from March to December 2020, of the 143 patients who recovered from COVID-19, 87 underwent study visits scheduled every 3 months. Patient demographics and blood samples were collected followed by a plaque reduction neutralization test to analyze nAb titers. A linear mixed model was used to compare the effects of sex, age, and disease severity over time. Results demonstrated a gradual reduction in nAb titers over time with a significant decrease from 6 to 9 months post-COVID-19 infection (p < 0.001). In time-to-sex, age, and disease severity comparisons, reduction in nAb titers over time was unaffected by sex (p = 0.167), age (p = 0.188), or disease severity (p = 0.081). Additionally, the nAb titer was 1.46 times significantly higher in those aged ≥ 50 years than in those aged < 50 years (p = 0.036) irrespective of time Moreover, the nAb titer was 2.41 times higher in the moderate or above than that in the below moderate disease severity group (p < 0.001). However, no significant differences were observed in terms of sex (p = 0.300). Given the reduction in nAbs over time, maintaining protective neutralizing antibodies regardless of sex, age, or disease severity is needed.

Original languageEnglish
Article number13491
JournalScientific reports
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Dec

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


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