Knowledge of the factors affecting the difference in kinetics and longevity of the neutralizing antibody (nAb) response to SARS-CoV-2 is necessary to properly prioritize vaccination. In the present study, from March to December 2020, of the 143 patients who recovered from COVID-19, 87 underwent study visits scheduled every 3 months. Patient demographics and blood samples were collected followed by a plaque reduction neutralization test to analyze nAb titers. A linear mixed model was used to compare the effects of sex, age, and disease severity over time. Results demonstrated a gradual reduction in nAb titers over time with a significant decrease from 6 to 9 months post-COVID-19 infection (p < 0.001). In time-to-sex, age, and disease severity comparisons, reduction in nAb titers over time was unaffected by sex (p = 0.167), age (p = 0.188), or disease severity (p = 0.081). Additionally, the nAb titer was 1.46 times significantly higher in those aged ≥ 50 years than in those aged < 50 years (p = 0.036) irrespective of time Moreover, the nAb titer was 2.41 times higher in the moderate or above than that in the below moderate disease severity group (p < 0.001). However, no significant differences were observed in terms of sex (p = 0.300). Given the reduction in nAbs over time, maintaining protective neutralizing antibodies regardless of sex, age, or disease severity is needed.
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