Korea National Survey for Environmental Pollutants in the Human Body 2008: Heavy metals in the blood or urine of the Korean population

Jong Wha Lee, Chae Kwan Lee, Chan Seok Moon, In Ja Choi, Kee Jae Lee, Seung Muk Yi, Bong Ki Jang, Byoung jun Yoon, Dae Seon Kim, Domyung Peak, Dong Geun Sul, Eunha Oh, Hosub Im, Hee Sook Kang, JeoungHee Kim, Jong-Tae Lee, Kisok Kim, Kyung Lyoul Park, Ryoungme Ahn, Seok Hwan ParkSeong Cheon Kim, Choong Hee Park, Jin Heon Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

82 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Recently, there have been several nationwide episodes involving imported toys contaminated with toxic metals and environmental hormones. In addition, cadmium intoxication has occurred due to soil contamination with cadmium from abandoned metal mines. Objectives: To investigate the distribution, extent and factors influencing the levels of toxic metals in the blood or urine of the Korean general population over twenty years of age, we studied the blood or urine concentrations of heavy metals in a representative sample of 5087 Koreans in 2008. Methods: Multiple biological substrates were collected from each participant to determine the most suitable samples for an environmental health survey system. Information regarding exposure conditions of all subjects was collected by questionnaire-based interviews. Results: The geometric means of the blood lead, mercury and manganese levels were 19.1, 3.23 and 10.8. μg/L, respectively. The geometric means of urinary arsenic and cadmium concentrations were 43.5 and 0.65. μg/L, respectively. Blood mercury and urinary arsenic levels in the Korean general population were significantly higher than in European and American populations. Conclusions: The higher levels of blood mercury and urinary arsenic could be explained by the greater seafood consumption among the Korean population. This biomonitoring study of blood or urine heavy metals in the Korean general population provides important reference data stratified by demographic and lifestyle factors that will be useful for the ongoing surveillance of environmental exposure of Koreans to toxic metals.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)449-457
Number of pages9
JournalInternational Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Volume215
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2012 Jul 1

Fingerprint

Environmental Pollutants
Korea
Heavy Metals
Human Body
Urine
Poisons
Arsenic
Metals
Mercury
Cadmium
Population
Seafood
Play and Playthings
Environmental Health
Environmental Monitoring
Environmental Exposure
Manganese
Health Surveys
Surveys and Questionnaires
Life Style

Keywords

  • Arsenic
  • Cadmium
  • Korean
  • Lead
  • Manganese
  • Mercury

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Cite this

Korea National Survey for Environmental Pollutants in the Human Body 2008 : Heavy metals in the blood or urine of the Korean population. / Lee, Jong Wha; Lee, Chae Kwan; Moon, Chan Seok; Choi, In Ja; Lee, Kee Jae; Yi, Seung Muk; Jang, Bong Ki; Yoon, Byoung jun; Kim, Dae Seon; Peak, Domyung; Sul, Dong Geun; Oh, Eunha; Im, Hosub; Kang, Hee Sook; Kim, JeoungHee; Lee, Jong-Tae; Kim, Kisok; Park, Kyung Lyoul; Ahn, Ryoungme; Park, Seok Hwan; Kim, Seong Cheon; Park, Choong Hee; Lee, Jin Heon.

In: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, Vol. 215, No. 4, 01.07.2012, p. 449-457.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Lee, JW, Lee, CK, Moon, CS, Choi, IJ, Lee, KJ, Yi, SM, Jang, BK, Yoon, BJ, Kim, DS, Peak, D, Sul, DG, Oh, E, Im, H, Kang, HS, Kim, J, Lee, J-T, Kim, K, Park, KL, Ahn, R, Park, SH, Kim, SC, Park, CH & Lee, JH 2012, 'Korea National Survey for Environmental Pollutants in the Human Body 2008: Heavy metals in the blood or urine of the Korean population', International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, vol. 215, no. 4, pp. 449-457. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheh.2012.01.002
Lee, Jong Wha ; Lee, Chae Kwan ; Moon, Chan Seok ; Choi, In Ja ; Lee, Kee Jae ; Yi, Seung Muk ; Jang, Bong Ki ; Yoon, Byoung jun ; Kim, Dae Seon ; Peak, Domyung ; Sul, Dong Geun ; Oh, Eunha ; Im, Hosub ; Kang, Hee Sook ; Kim, JeoungHee ; Lee, Jong-Tae ; Kim, Kisok ; Park, Kyung Lyoul ; Ahn, Ryoungme ; Park, Seok Hwan ; Kim, Seong Cheon ; Park, Choong Hee ; Lee, Jin Heon. / Korea National Survey for Environmental Pollutants in the Human Body 2008 : Heavy metals in the blood or urine of the Korean population. In: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health. 2012 ; Vol. 215, No. 4. pp. 449-457.
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T2 - Heavy metals in the blood or urine of the Korean population

AU - Lee, Jong Wha

AU - Lee, Chae Kwan

AU - Moon, Chan Seok

AU - Choi, In Ja

AU - Lee, Kee Jae

AU - Yi, Seung Muk

AU - Jang, Bong Ki

AU - Yoon, Byoung jun

AU - Kim, Dae Seon

AU - Peak, Domyung

AU - Sul, Dong Geun

AU - Oh, Eunha

AU - Im, Hosub

AU - Kang, Hee Sook

AU - Kim, JeoungHee

AU - Lee, Jong-Tae

AU - Kim, Kisok

AU - Park, Kyung Lyoul

AU - Ahn, Ryoungme

AU - Park, Seok Hwan

AU - Kim, Seong Cheon

AU - Park, Choong Hee

AU - Lee, Jin Heon

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N2 - Background: Recently, there have been several nationwide episodes involving imported toys contaminated with toxic metals and environmental hormones. In addition, cadmium intoxication has occurred due to soil contamination with cadmium from abandoned metal mines. Objectives: To investigate the distribution, extent and factors influencing the levels of toxic metals in the blood or urine of the Korean general population over twenty years of age, we studied the blood or urine concentrations of heavy metals in a representative sample of 5087 Koreans in 2008. Methods: Multiple biological substrates were collected from each participant to determine the most suitable samples for an environmental health survey system. Information regarding exposure conditions of all subjects was collected by questionnaire-based interviews. Results: The geometric means of the blood lead, mercury and manganese levels were 19.1, 3.23 and 10.8. μg/L, respectively. The geometric means of urinary arsenic and cadmium concentrations were 43.5 and 0.65. μg/L, respectively. Blood mercury and urinary arsenic levels in the Korean general population were significantly higher than in European and American populations. Conclusions: The higher levels of blood mercury and urinary arsenic could be explained by the greater seafood consumption among the Korean population. This biomonitoring study of blood or urine heavy metals in the Korean general population provides important reference data stratified by demographic and lifestyle factors that will be useful for the ongoing surveillance of environmental exposure of Koreans to toxic metals.

AB - Background: Recently, there have been several nationwide episodes involving imported toys contaminated with toxic metals and environmental hormones. In addition, cadmium intoxication has occurred due to soil contamination with cadmium from abandoned metal mines. Objectives: To investigate the distribution, extent and factors influencing the levels of toxic metals in the blood or urine of the Korean general population over twenty years of age, we studied the blood or urine concentrations of heavy metals in a representative sample of 5087 Koreans in 2008. Methods: Multiple biological substrates were collected from each participant to determine the most suitable samples for an environmental health survey system. Information regarding exposure conditions of all subjects was collected by questionnaire-based interviews. Results: The geometric means of the blood lead, mercury and manganese levels were 19.1, 3.23 and 10.8. μg/L, respectively. The geometric means of urinary arsenic and cadmium concentrations were 43.5 and 0.65. μg/L, respectively. Blood mercury and urinary arsenic levels in the Korean general population were significantly higher than in European and American populations. Conclusions: The higher levels of blood mercury and urinary arsenic could be explained by the greater seafood consumption among the Korean population. This biomonitoring study of blood or urine heavy metals in the Korean general population provides important reference data stratified by demographic and lifestyle factors that will be useful for the ongoing surveillance of environmental exposure of Koreans to toxic metals.

KW - Arsenic

KW - Cadmium

KW - Korean

KW - Lead

KW - Manganese

KW - Mercury

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