A mouse skull is a barrier for high-resolution optical imaging because its thick and inhomogeneous internal structures induce complex aberrations varying drastically from position to position. Invasive procedures creating either thinned-skull or open-skull windows are often required for the microscopic imaging of brain tissues underneath. Here, we propose a label-free imaging modality termed laser scanning reflection-matrix microscopy for recording the amplitude and phase maps of reflected waves at non-confocal points as well as confocal points. The proposed method enables us to find and computationally correct up to 10,000 angular modes of aberrations varying at every 10 × 10 µm2 patch in the sample plane. We realized reflectance imaging of myelinated axons in vivo underneath an intact mouse skull, with an ideal diffraction-limited spatial resolution of 450 nm. Furthermore, we demonstrated through-skull two-photon fluorescence imaging of neuronal dendrites and their spines by physically correcting the aberrations identified from the reflection matrix.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Physics and Astronomy(all)