Mechanistic and kinetic insights into the lithium–sulfur (Li–S) redox processes are essential to fundamentally increase the utilization of active material and further realize the practical applications of Li–S batteries. In this article, recent advances of in situ/operando characterizations of Li–S reaction processes and mechanism are presented, revealing the multistep transformations of S species. Interfacial visualization, from the whole interface to nanometer scale, provides specific evidence of sulfur distribution, polysulfide diffusion, and lithium sulfide precipitation. Moreover, the development of efficient electrocatalysts to improve the reaction kinetics are additionally presented and discussed. Although the understanding of the mechanism of the Li–S redox processes has improved in recent times, additional efforts are required for the scale-up production and practical applications of Li–S batteries.
- In situ/operando characterization
- Interfacial electrocatalysis
- Lithium–sulfur batteries
- Reaction mechanism and kinetics
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Analytical Chemistry