Background Patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) have known to a high risk of cardiac mortality. However, the effectiveness of the routine evaluation of coronary arteries such as routine coronary angiography (CAG) in PAD patients receiving percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) is unclear. Methods A total of 765 consecutive PAD patients underwent successful PTA and 674 patients (88.1%) underwent routine CAG. Coronary artery disease (CAD) was defined as angiographic stenosis ≥70%. Patients were divided into three groups; 1) routine CAG and a presence of CAD (n = 413 patients), 2) routine CAG and no CAD group (n = 261 patients), and 3) no CAG group (n = 91 patients). To adjust for any potential confounders that could cause bias, multivariable Cox-proportional hazards regression and propensity score matching (PSM) analysis was performed. Clinical outcomes were evaluated by Kaplan-Meier curved analysis at 5-year follow-up. Results In this study, the 5-year survival rate of patients with PAD who underwent PTA was 88.5%. Survival rates were similar among the CAD group, the no CAD group, and the no CAG group, respectively (87.7% vs. 90.4% vs. 86.8% P = 0.241). After PSM analysis between the CAD group and the no CAD group, during the 5-year clinical follow-up, there were no differences in the incidence of death, myocardial infarction, strokes, peripheral revascularization, or target extremity surgeries between the two groups except for repeat PCI, which was higher in the CAD group than the non-CAD group (9.3% vs. 0.8%, P<0.001). Conclusion PAD patients with CAD were expected to have very poor long-term survival, but they are shown no different long-term prognosis such as mortality compared to PAD patients without CAD. These PAD patients with CAD had received PCI and/or optimal medication treatment after the CAG. Therefore a strategy of routine CAG and subsequent PCI, if required, appears to be a reasonable strategy for mortality risk reduction of PAD patients. Our results highlight the importance for evaluation for CAD in patients with PAD.
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