Longitudinal course of depression scores with and without insomnia in non-depressed individuals: A 6-year follow-up longitudinal study in a Korean cohort

Sooyeon Suh, Hyun Kim, Hae Chung Yang, Eo Rin Cho, Seung Ku Lee, Chol Shin

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41 Citations (Scopus)


Study Objective: This is a population-based longitudinal study that followed insomnia symptoms over a 6-year period in non-depressed individuals. The purpose of the study was to (1) investigate the longitudinal course of depression based on number of insomnia episodes; and (2) describe longitudinal associations between insomnia and depression, and insomnia and suicidal ideation. Design: Population-based longitudinal study. Setting: Community-based sample from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES). Participants: 1,282 non-depressed individuals (44% male, mean age 52.3 ± 7.14 years) Measurements and Results: This study prospectively assessed insomnia, depression, and suicidal ideation with 4 time points. Individuals were classified into no insomnia (NI), single episode insomnia (SEI), and persistent insomnia (PI; ≥ insomnia at 2+ time points) groups based on number of times insomnia was indicated. Mixed effects modeling indicated that depression scores increased significantly faster in the PI group compared to the NI (P < 0.001) and SEI (P = 0.02) groups. Additionally, the PI group had significantly increased odds of depression as compared to NI or SEI (OR 2.44, P = 0.001) groups, with 18.7% meeting criteria for depression compared to the NI (5.3%) and SEI (11.6%) groups at end point. The PI group also had significantly increased odds of suicidal ideation as compared to NI or SEI (OR 1.86, P = 0.002) groups. Conclusions: Persistent insomnia significantly increases the rate in which depression occurs over time in non-depressed individuals, which ultimately leads to higher risk for depression. Additionally, having persistent insomnia also increased the risk of suicidal ideation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)369-376
Number of pages8
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2013 Mar 1



  • Depression
  • Epidemiology
  • Insomnia
  • Mental health
  • Suicidal ideation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Physiology (medical)

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