Purpose: Low vitamin D level is common in adults with diabetes mellitus (DM). We assessed vitamin D level and its associated factors in Korean youth with type 1 DM. Methods: Type 1 DM cases (n=85) and healthy controls (n=518) aged <20 years were included and grouped into 3 categories according to vitamin D level: deficiency (<20 ng/mL), insufficiency (20–30 ng/mL), or sufficiency (≥30 ng/mL). Results: The mean serum vitamin D level was significantly lower (21.6±8.5 ng/mL vs. 28.0±12.0 ng/mL, P<0.001) and vitamin D deficiency prevalence was significantly higher (48% vs. 26%, P<0.001) in type 1 DM cases than in healthy controls. Logistic regression analysis revealed that type 1 DM cases were more likely to have vitamin D deficiency (P=0.004), independent of sex, age, and body mass index. Type 1 DM cases with vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency were mainly diagnosed in winter (November to April) (P=0.005), and the duration of diabetes was longer than in those with vitamin D sufficiency (P=0.046). However, season of diagnosis, duration of diabetes, prescribed daily insulin dose, and glycosylated hemoglobin and C-peptide levels were not associated with 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) level in type 1 DM cases after adjustment for other factors. Conclusion: We recommend assessment of serum 25(OH)D level in type 1 DM cases and to treatment if findings indicate insufficiency. Further studies investigating the mechanisms underlying vitamin D deficiency in youth with type 1 DM are needed.
- Case-control studies
- Diabetes mellitus
- Type 1
- Vitamin D deficiency
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism