Low Magnesium Levels in Adults with Metabolic Syndrome: a Meta-Analysis

Sang A. La, Juneyoung Lee, Do-Hoon Kim, E. Lang Song, Jin Hee Park, Sang Yhun Ju

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

10 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

There is conflicting evidence regarding the relationship between magnesium deficiency and metabolic syndrome, and a systematic assessment of the literature has not been performed. Our objective was to clarify the association between magnesium levels and metabolic syndrome by performing a meta-analysis. Based on 13 eligible studies involving 14 analyses and 5496 enrolled participants, magnesium levels were significantly lower in adults with metabolic syndrome than in controls (standardized mean difference [SMD] = −0.98, 95 % confidence interval [CI] = −1.44 to −0.52). There was marked heterogeneity when all comparisons were considered (I2 = 98 %, p < 0.001). In the subgroup meta-analysis and meta-regression model, a significant difference in magnesium levels was noted by geographic location and study quality. Magnesium levels were lower in the experimental cases than in the controls in West Asia (SMD = −3.80, 95 % CI = −5.36, −2.23) and Latin America (SMD = −1.38, 95 % CI = −1.88, −0.87), but not in East Asia (SMD = −0.01, 95 % CI = −0.30, 0.29) or Europe/Oceania (SMD = −0.25, 95 % CI = −0.53, 0.03). Moreover, the inverse association was greater in high-quality studies (SMD = −2.52, 95 % CI = −3.72, −1.32) than in low-quality studies (SMD = −0.33, 95 % CI = −0.57, −0.08). In conclusion, although there was a high level of heterogeneity, this meta-analysis provided convincing evidence of reduced magnesium levels in adults with metabolic syndrome based on the findings of observational studies. However, the present findings should be validated by additional prospective studies or trans-regional multicenter randomized controlled trials, which generally yield higher-level evidence than case–control studies and cross-sectional studies. Clinical Trial Registration Number: NCT02151227 (ClinicalTrials.gov Protocol Registration System); CRD42015017946 (www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)33-42
Number of pages10
JournalBiological Trace Element Research
Volume170
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016 Mar 1

Fingerprint

Magnesium
Meta-Analysis
Confidence Intervals
Oceania
Magnesium Deficiency
Geographic Locations
Far East
Latin America
Observational Studies
Randomized Controlled Trials
Cross-Sectional Studies
Clinical Trials
Prospective Studies

Keywords

  • Hair
  • Insulin resistance
  • Magnesium
  • Meta-analysis
  • Metabolic syndrome X
  • Mononuclear leukocytes
  • Observational study
  • Serum
  • Trace elements

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Biochemistry
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry
  • Biochemistry, medical

Cite this

Low Magnesium Levels in Adults with Metabolic Syndrome : a Meta-Analysis. / La, Sang A.; Lee, Juneyoung; Kim, Do-Hoon; Song, E. Lang; Park, Jin Hee; Ju, Sang Yhun.

In: Biological Trace Element Research, Vol. 170, No. 1, 01.03.2016, p. 33-42.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

La, Sang A. ; Lee, Juneyoung ; Kim, Do-Hoon ; Song, E. Lang ; Park, Jin Hee ; Ju, Sang Yhun. / Low Magnesium Levels in Adults with Metabolic Syndrome : a Meta-Analysis. In: Biological Trace Element Research. 2016 ; Vol. 170, No. 1. pp. 33-42.
@article{8004de0e8bd74ec28cb7062b1a7e1e0f,
title = "Low Magnesium Levels in Adults with Metabolic Syndrome: a Meta-Analysis",
abstract = "There is conflicting evidence regarding the relationship between magnesium deficiency and metabolic syndrome, and a systematic assessment of the literature has not been performed. Our objective was to clarify the association between magnesium levels and metabolic syndrome by performing a meta-analysis. Based on 13 eligible studies involving 14 analyses and 5496 enrolled participants, magnesium levels were significantly lower in adults with metabolic syndrome than in controls (standardized mean difference [SMD] = −0.98, 95 {\%} confidence interval [CI] = −1.44 to −0.52). There was marked heterogeneity when all comparisons were considered (I2 = 98 {\%}, p < 0.001). In the subgroup meta-analysis and meta-regression model, a significant difference in magnesium levels was noted by geographic location and study quality. Magnesium levels were lower in the experimental cases than in the controls in West Asia (SMD = −3.80, 95 {\%} CI = −5.36, −2.23) and Latin America (SMD = −1.38, 95 {\%} CI = −1.88, −0.87), but not in East Asia (SMD = −0.01, 95 {\%} CI = −0.30, 0.29) or Europe/Oceania (SMD = −0.25, 95 {\%} CI = −0.53, 0.03). Moreover, the inverse association was greater in high-quality studies (SMD = −2.52, 95 {\%} CI = −3.72, −1.32) than in low-quality studies (SMD = −0.33, 95 {\%} CI = −0.57, −0.08). In conclusion, although there was a high level of heterogeneity, this meta-analysis provided convincing evidence of reduced magnesium levels in adults with metabolic syndrome based on the findings of observational studies. However, the present findings should be validated by additional prospective studies or trans-regional multicenter randomized controlled trials, which generally yield higher-level evidence than case–control studies and cross-sectional studies. Clinical Trial Registration Number: NCT02151227 (ClinicalTrials.gov Protocol Registration System); CRD42015017946 (www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO).",
keywords = "Hair, Insulin resistance, Magnesium, Meta-analysis, Metabolic syndrome X, Mononuclear leukocytes, Observational study, Serum, Trace elements",
author = "La, {Sang A.} and Juneyoung Lee and Do-Hoon Kim and Song, {E. Lang} and Park, {Jin Hee} and Ju, {Sang Yhun}",
year = "2016",
month = "3",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1007/s12011-015-0446-9",
language = "English",
volume = "170",
pages = "33--42",
journal = "Biological Trace Element Research",
issn = "0163-4984",
publisher = "Humana Press",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Low Magnesium Levels in Adults with Metabolic Syndrome

T2 - a Meta-Analysis

AU - La, Sang A.

AU - Lee, Juneyoung

AU - Kim, Do-Hoon

AU - Song, E. Lang

AU - Park, Jin Hee

AU - Ju, Sang Yhun

PY - 2016/3/1

Y1 - 2016/3/1

N2 - There is conflicting evidence regarding the relationship between magnesium deficiency and metabolic syndrome, and a systematic assessment of the literature has not been performed. Our objective was to clarify the association between magnesium levels and metabolic syndrome by performing a meta-analysis. Based on 13 eligible studies involving 14 analyses and 5496 enrolled participants, magnesium levels were significantly lower in adults with metabolic syndrome than in controls (standardized mean difference [SMD] = −0.98, 95 % confidence interval [CI] = −1.44 to −0.52). There was marked heterogeneity when all comparisons were considered (I2 = 98 %, p < 0.001). In the subgroup meta-analysis and meta-regression model, a significant difference in magnesium levels was noted by geographic location and study quality. Magnesium levels were lower in the experimental cases than in the controls in West Asia (SMD = −3.80, 95 % CI = −5.36, −2.23) and Latin America (SMD = −1.38, 95 % CI = −1.88, −0.87), but not in East Asia (SMD = −0.01, 95 % CI = −0.30, 0.29) or Europe/Oceania (SMD = −0.25, 95 % CI = −0.53, 0.03). Moreover, the inverse association was greater in high-quality studies (SMD = −2.52, 95 % CI = −3.72, −1.32) than in low-quality studies (SMD = −0.33, 95 % CI = −0.57, −0.08). In conclusion, although there was a high level of heterogeneity, this meta-analysis provided convincing evidence of reduced magnesium levels in adults with metabolic syndrome based on the findings of observational studies. However, the present findings should be validated by additional prospective studies or trans-regional multicenter randomized controlled trials, which generally yield higher-level evidence than case–control studies and cross-sectional studies. Clinical Trial Registration Number: NCT02151227 (ClinicalTrials.gov Protocol Registration System); CRD42015017946 (www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO).

AB - There is conflicting evidence regarding the relationship between magnesium deficiency and metabolic syndrome, and a systematic assessment of the literature has not been performed. Our objective was to clarify the association between magnesium levels and metabolic syndrome by performing a meta-analysis. Based on 13 eligible studies involving 14 analyses and 5496 enrolled participants, magnesium levels were significantly lower in adults with metabolic syndrome than in controls (standardized mean difference [SMD] = −0.98, 95 % confidence interval [CI] = −1.44 to −0.52). There was marked heterogeneity when all comparisons were considered (I2 = 98 %, p < 0.001). In the subgroup meta-analysis and meta-regression model, a significant difference in magnesium levels was noted by geographic location and study quality. Magnesium levels were lower in the experimental cases than in the controls in West Asia (SMD = −3.80, 95 % CI = −5.36, −2.23) and Latin America (SMD = −1.38, 95 % CI = −1.88, −0.87), but not in East Asia (SMD = −0.01, 95 % CI = −0.30, 0.29) or Europe/Oceania (SMD = −0.25, 95 % CI = −0.53, 0.03). Moreover, the inverse association was greater in high-quality studies (SMD = −2.52, 95 % CI = −3.72, −1.32) than in low-quality studies (SMD = −0.33, 95 % CI = −0.57, −0.08). In conclusion, although there was a high level of heterogeneity, this meta-analysis provided convincing evidence of reduced magnesium levels in adults with metabolic syndrome based on the findings of observational studies. However, the present findings should be validated by additional prospective studies or trans-regional multicenter randomized controlled trials, which generally yield higher-level evidence than case–control studies and cross-sectional studies. Clinical Trial Registration Number: NCT02151227 (ClinicalTrials.gov Protocol Registration System); CRD42015017946 (www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO).

KW - Hair

KW - Insulin resistance

KW - Magnesium

KW - Meta-analysis

KW - Metabolic syndrome X

KW - Mononuclear leukocytes

KW - Observational study

KW - Serum

KW - Trace elements

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84957433539&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84957433539&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1007/s12011-015-0446-9

DO - 10.1007/s12011-015-0446-9

M3 - Article

C2 - 26208810

AN - SCOPUS:84957433539

VL - 170

SP - 33

EP - 42

JO - Biological Trace Element Research

JF - Biological Trace Element Research

SN - 0163-4984

IS - 1

ER -