Macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 induces the invasiveness of gastric cancer cells by up-regulating the urokinase-type plasminogen activator system

Dongho Lee, Young Yang, Soon Jung Lee, Kun Yong Kim, Tae Hyeon Koo, Sun Mi Shin, Kyu Sang Song, Young Ho Lee, Yung Jin Kim, Jung Joon Lee, Inpyo Choi, Jeong Hyung Lee

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132 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

In our search for genes associated with gastric cancer progression, we identified macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1), a member of the transforming growth factor β superfamily, as an overexpressed gene in gastric tumor tissues. Expression analysis of MIC-1 in gastric tumor tissues revealed a specific expression in gastric cancer cells, and this expression level was well correlated with invasive potential in various human gastric cancer cell lines. Stable transfection of MIC-1 into SNU-216, a human gastric cancer cell line, significantly increased its invasiveness. The overexpression of MIC-1 into SNU-216 cells significantly increased the activity of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), and the expressions of uPA and urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR). Similarly, the stimulation of gastric cancer cell lines with purified recombinant MIC-1 dose-dependently increased cell invasiveness, uPA activity, and uPA and uPAR expression. However, MIC-1 did not significantly suppress the proliferation of gastric cancer cell lines. We also found that the stimulation of human gastric cell lines with recombinant MIC-1 strongly induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase-1/2 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2. Additional analysis revealed that PD98059, a selective inhibitor of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase-1/2, suppressed not only gastric cancer cell invasiveness and uPA activity, but also the mRNA expressions of uPA and uPAR, as induced by recombinant MIC-1. Our results indicate that MIC-1 may contribute to the malignant progression of gastric cancer cells by inducing tumor cell invasion through the up-regulation of the uPA activation system via extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2-dependent pathway.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4648-4655
Number of pages8
JournalCancer Research
Volume63
Issue number15
Publication statusPublished - 2003 Aug 1
Externally publishedYes

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ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cancer Research
  • Oncology

Cite this

Lee, D., Yang, Y., Lee, S. J., Kim, K. Y., Koo, T. H., Shin, S. M., Song, K. S., Lee, Y. H., Kim, Y. J., Lee, J. J., Choi, I., & Lee, J. H. (2003). Macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 induces the invasiveness of gastric cancer cells by up-regulating the urokinase-type plasminogen activator system. Cancer Research, 63(15), 4648-4655.