Magmatism, serpentinization and life: Insights through drilling the Atlantis Massif (IODP Expedition 357)

Gretchen L. Früh-Green, Beth N. Orcutt, Stéphane Rouméjon, Marvin D. Lilley, Yuki Morono, Carol Cotterill, Sophie Green, Javier Escartin, Barbara E. John, Andrew M. McCaig, Mathilde Cannat, Bénédicte Ménez, Esther M. Schwarzenbach, Morgan J. Williams, Sally Morgan, Susan Q. Lang, Matthew O. Schrenk, William J. Brazelton, Norikatsu Akizawa, Chiara BoschiKristina G. Dunkel, Marianne Quéméneur, Scott A. Whattam, Lisa Mayhew, Michelle Harris, Gaye Bayrakci, Jan Hinrich Behrmann, Emilio Herrero-Bervera, Kirsten Hesse, Hai Quan Liu, Amila Sandaruwan Ratnayake, Katrina Twing, Dominique Weis, Rui Zhao, Laura Bilenker

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

6 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

IODP Expedition 357 used two seabed drills to core 17 shallow holes at 9 sites across Atlantis Massif ocean core complex (Mid-Atlantic Ridge 30°N). The goals of this expedition were to investigate serpentinization processes and microbial activity in the shallow subsurface of highly altered ultramafic and mafic sequences that have been uplifted to the seafloor along a major detachment fault zone. More than 57 m of core were recovered, with borehole penetration ranging from 1.3 to 16.4 meters below seafloor, and core recovery as high as 75% of total penetration in one borehole. The cores show highly heterogeneous rock types and alteration associated with changes in bulk rock chemistry that reflect multiple phases of magmatism, fluid-rock interaction and mass transfer within the detachment fault zone. Recovered ultramafic rocks are dominated by pervasively serpentinized harzburgite with intervals of serpentinized dunite and minor pyroxenite veins; gabbroic rocks occur as melt impregnations and veins. Dolerite intrusions and basaltic rocks represent the latest magmatic activity. The proportion of mafic rocks is volumetrically less than the amount of mafic rocks recovered previously by drilling the central dome of Atlantis Massif at IODP Site U1309. This suggests a different mode of melt accumulation in the mantle peridotites at the ridge-transform intersection and/or a tectonic transposition of rock types within a complex detachment fault zone. The cores revealed a high degree of serpentinization and metasomatic alteration dominated by talc-amphibole-chlorite overprinting. Metasomatism is most prevalent at contacts between ultramafic and mafic domains (gabbroic and/or doleritic intrusions) and points to channeled fluid flow and silica mobility during exhumation along the detachment fault. The presence of the mafic lenses within the serpentinites and their alteration to mechanically weak talc, serpentine and chlorite may also be critical in the development of the detachment fault zone and may aid in continued unroofing of the upper mantle peridotite/gabbro sequences. New technologies were also developed for the seabed drills to enable biogeochemical and microbiological characterization of the environment. An in situ sensor package and water sampling system recorded real-time variations in dissolved methane, oxygen, pH, oxidation reduction potential (Eh), and temperature and during drilling and sampled bottom water after drilling. Systematic excursions in these parameters together with elevated hydrogen and methane concentrations in post-drilling fluids provide evidence for active serpentinization at all sites. In addition, chemical tracers were delivered into the drilling fluids for contamination testing, and a borehole plug system was successfully deployed at some sites for future fluid sampling. A major achievement of IODP Expedition 357 was to obtain microbiological samples along a west–east profile, which will provide a better understanding of how microbial communities evolve as ultramafic and mafic rocks are altered and emplaced on the seafloor. Strict sampling handling protocols allowed for very low limits of microbial cell detection, and our results show that the Atlantis Massif subsurface contains a relatively low density of microbial life.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)137-155
Number of pages19
JournalLithos
Volume323
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2018 Dec 15

Fingerprint

serpentinization
detachment fault
magmatism
Drilling
Rocks
drilling
fault zone
mafic rock
rock
seafloor
borehole
talc
drilling fluid
ultramafic rock
Boreholes
chlorite
sampling
Talc
penetration
methane

Keywords

  • Atlantis Massif
  • Deep biosphere
  • Detachment faulting
  • IODP Expedition 357
  • Serpentinization
  • Si metasomatism

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geology
  • Geochemistry and Petrology

Cite this

Früh-Green, G. L., Orcutt, B. N., Rouméjon, S., Lilley, M. D., Morono, Y., Cotterill, C., ... Bilenker, L. (2018). Magmatism, serpentinization and life: Insights through drilling the Atlantis Massif (IODP Expedition 357). Lithos, 323, 137-155. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lithos.2018.09.012

Magmatism, serpentinization and life : Insights through drilling the Atlantis Massif (IODP Expedition 357). / Früh-Green, Gretchen L.; Orcutt, Beth N.; Rouméjon, Stéphane; Lilley, Marvin D.; Morono, Yuki; Cotterill, Carol; Green, Sophie; Escartin, Javier; John, Barbara E.; McCaig, Andrew M.; Cannat, Mathilde; Ménez, Bénédicte; Schwarzenbach, Esther M.; Williams, Morgan J.; Morgan, Sally; Lang, Susan Q.; Schrenk, Matthew O.; Brazelton, William J.; Akizawa, Norikatsu; Boschi, Chiara; Dunkel, Kristina G.; Quéméneur, Marianne; Whattam, Scott A.; Mayhew, Lisa; Harris, Michelle; Bayrakci, Gaye; Behrmann, Jan Hinrich; Herrero-Bervera, Emilio; Hesse, Kirsten; Liu, Hai Quan; Ratnayake, Amila Sandaruwan; Twing, Katrina; Weis, Dominique; Zhao, Rui; Bilenker, Laura.

In: Lithos, Vol. 323, 15.12.2018, p. 137-155.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Früh-Green, GL, Orcutt, BN, Rouméjon, S, Lilley, MD, Morono, Y, Cotterill, C, Green, S, Escartin, J, John, BE, McCaig, AM, Cannat, M, Ménez, B, Schwarzenbach, EM, Williams, MJ, Morgan, S, Lang, SQ, Schrenk, MO, Brazelton, WJ, Akizawa, N, Boschi, C, Dunkel, KG, Quéméneur, M, Whattam, SA, Mayhew, L, Harris, M, Bayrakci, G, Behrmann, JH, Herrero-Bervera, E, Hesse, K, Liu, HQ, Ratnayake, AS, Twing, K, Weis, D, Zhao, R & Bilenker, L 2018, 'Magmatism, serpentinization and life: Insights through drilling the Atlantis Massif (IODP Expedition 357)', Lithos, vol. 323, pp. 137-155. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lithos.2018.09.012
Früh-Green GL, Orcutt BN, Rouméjon S, Lilley MD, Morono Y, Cotterill C et al. Magmatism, serpentinization and life: Insights through drilling the Atlantis Massif (IODP Expedition 357). Lithos. 2018 Dec 15;323:137-155. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lithos.2018.09.012
Früh-Green, Gretchen L. ; Orcutt, Beth N. ; Rouméjon, Stéphane ; Lilley, Marvin D. ; Morono, Yuki ; Cotterill, Carol ; Green, Sophie ; Escartin, Javier ; John, Barbara E. ; McCaig, Andrew M. ; Cannat, Mathilde ; Ménez, Bénédicte ; Schwarzenbach, Esther M. ; Williams, Morgan J. ; Morgan, Sally ; Lang, Susan Q. ; Schrenk, Matthew O. ; Brazelton, William J. ; Akizawa, Norikatsu ; Boschi, Chiara ; Dunkel, Kristina G. ; Quéméneur, Marianne ; Whattam, Scott A. ; Mayhew, Lisa ; Harris, Michelle ; Bayrakci, Gaye ; Behrmann, Jan Hinrich ; Herrero-Bervera, Emilio ; Hesse, Kirsten ; Liu, Hai Quan ; Ratnayake, Amila Sandaruwan ; Twing, Katrina ; Weis, Dominique ; Zhao, Rui ; Bilenker, Laura. / Magmatism, serpentinization and life : Insights through drilling the Atlantis Massif (IODP Expedition 357). In: Lithos. 2018 ; Vol. 323. pp. 137-155.
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T1 - Magmatism, serpentinization and life

T2 - Insights through drilling the Atlantis Massif (IODP Expedition 357)

AU - Früh-Green, Gretchen L.

AU - Orcutt, Beth N.

AU - Rouméjon, Stéphane

AU - Lilley, Marvin D.

AU - Morono, Yuki

AU - Cotterill, Carol

AU - Green, Sophie

AU - Escartin, Javier

AU - John, Barbara E.

AU - McCaig, Andrew M.

AU - Cannat, Mathilde

AU - Ménez, Bénédicte

AU - Schwarzenbach, Esther M.

AU - Williams, Morgan J.

AU - Morgan, Sally

AU - Lang, Susan Q.

AU - Schrenk, Matthew O.

AU - Brazelton, William J.

AU - Akizawa, Norikatsu

AU - Boschi, Chiara

AU - Dunkel, Kristina G.

AU - Quéméneur, Marianne

AU - Whattam, Scott A.

AU - Mayhew, Lisa

AU - Harris, Michelle

AU - Bayrakci, Gaye

AU - Behrmann, Jan Hinrich

AU - Herrero-Bervera, Emilio

AU - Hesse, Kirsten

AU - Liu, Hai Quan

AU - Ratnayake, Amila Sandaruwan

AU - Twing, Katrina

AU - Weis, Dominique

AU - Zhao, Rui

AU - Bilenker, Laura

PY - 2018/12/15

Y1 - 2018/12/15

N2 - IODP Expedition 357 used two seabed drills to core 17 shallow holes at 9 sites across Atlantis Massif ocean core complex (Mid-Atlantic Ridge 30°N). The goals of this expedition were to investigate serpentinization processes and microbial activity in the shallow subsurface of highly altered ultramafic and mafic sequences that have been uplifted to the seafloor along a major detachment fault zone. More than 57 m of core were recovered, with borehole penetration ranging from 1.3 to 16.4 meters below seafloor, and core recovery as high as 75% of total penetration in one borehole. The cores show highly heterogeneous rock types and alteration associated with changes in bulk rock chemistry that reflect multiple phases of magmatism, fluid-rock interaction and mass transfer within the detachment fault zone. Recovered ultramafic rocks are dominated by pervasively serpentinized harzburgite with intervals of serpentinized dunite and minor pyroxenite veins; gabbroic rocks occur as melt impregnations and veins. Dolerite intrusions and basaltic rocks represent the latest magmatic activity. The proportion of mafic rocks is volumetrically less than the amount of mafic rocks recovered previously by drilling the central dome of Atlantis Massif at IODP Site U1309. This suggests a different mode of melt accumulation in the mantle peridotites at the ridge-transform intersection and/or a tectonic transposition of rock types within a complex detachment fault zone. The cores revealed a high degree of serpentinization and metasomatic alteration dominated by talc-amphibole-chlorite overprinting. Metasomatism is most prevalent at contacts between ultramafic and mafic domains (gabbroic and/or doleritic intrusions) and points to channeled fluid flow and silica mobility during exhumation along the detachment fault. The presence of the mafic lenses within the serpentinites and their alteration to mechanically weak talc, serpentine and chlorite may also be critical in the development of the detachment fault zone and may aid in continued unroofing of the upper mantle peridotite/gabbro sequences. New technologies were also developed for the seabed drills to enable biogeochemical and microbiological characterization of the environment. An in situ sensor package and water sampling system recorded real-time variations in dissolved methane, oxygen, pH, oxidation reduction potential (Eh), and temperature and during drilling and sampled bottom water after drilling. Systematic excursions in these parameters together with elevated hydrogen and methane concentrations in post-drilling fluids provide evidence for active serpentinization at all sites. In addition, chemical tracers were delivered into the drilling fluids for contamination testing, and a borehole plug system was successfully deployed at some sites for future fluid sampling. A major achievement of IODP Expedition 357 was to obtain microbiological samples along a west–east profile, which will provide a better understanding of how microbial communities evolve as ultramafic and mafic rocks are altered and emplaced on the seafloor. Strict sampling handling protocols allowed for very low limits of microbial cell detection, and our results show that the Atlantis Massif subsurface contains a relatively low density of microbial life.

AB - IODP Expedition 357 used two seabed drills to core 17 shallow holes at 9 sites across Atlantis Massif ocean core complex (Mid-Atlantic Ridge 30°N). The goals of this expedition were to investigate serpentinization processes and microbial activity in the shallow subsurface of highly altered ultramafic and mafic sequences that have been uplifted to the seafloor along a major detachment fault zone. More than 57 m of core were recovered, with borehole penetration ranging from 1.3 to 16.4 meters below seafloor, and core recovery as high as 75% of total penetration in one borehole. The cores show highly heterogeneous rock types and alteration associated with changes in bulk rock chemistry that reflect multiple phases of magmatism, fluid-rock interaction and mass transfer within the detachment fault zone. Recovered ultramafic rocks are dominated by pervasively serpentinized harzburgite with intervals of serpentinized dunite and minor pyroxenite veins; gabbroic rocks occur as melt impregnations and veins. Dolerite intrusions and basaltic rocks represent the latest magmatic activity. The proportion of mafic rocks is volumetrically less than the amount of mafic rocks recovered previously by drilling the central dome of Atlantis Massif at IODP Site U1309. This suggests a different mode of melt accumulation in the mantle peridotites at the ridge-transform intersection and/or a tectonic transposition of rock types within a complex detachment fault zone. The cores revealed a high degree of serpentinization and metasomatic alteration dominated by talc-amphibole-chlorite overprinting. Metasomatism is most prevalent at contacts between ultramafic and mafic domains (gabbroic and/or doleritic intrusions) and points to channeled fluid flow and silica mobility during exhumation along the detachment fault. The presence of the mafic lenses within the serpentinites and their alteration to mechanically weak talc, serpentine and chlorite may also be critical in the development of the detachment fault zone and may aid in continued unroofing of the upper mantle peridotite/gabbro sequences. New technologies were also developed for the seabed drills to enable biogeochemical and microbiological characterization of the environment. An in situ sensor package and water sampling system recorded real-time variations in dissolved methane, oxygen, pH, oxidation reduction potential (Eh), and temperature and during drilling and sampled bottom water after drilling. Systematic excursions in these parameters together with elevated hydrogen and methane concentrations in post-drilling fluids provide evidence for active serpentinization at all sites. In addition, chemical tracers were delivered into the drilling fluids for contamination testing, and a borehole plug system was successfully deployed at some sites for future fluid sampling. A major achievement of IODP Expedition 357 was to obtain microbiological samples along a west–east profile, which will provide a better understanding of how microbial communities evolve as ultramafic and mafic rocks are altered and emplaced on the seafloor. Strict sampling handling protocols allowed for very low limits of microbial cell detection, and our results show that the Atlantis Massif subsurface contains a relatively low density of microbial life.

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KW - Deep biosphere

KW - Detachment faulting

KW - IODP Expedition 357

KW - Serpentinization

KW - Si metasomatism

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