Mapping Disulfide Bonds in Insulin with the Route 66 Method: Selective Cleavage of S{single bond}C Bonds Using Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metal Enolate Complexes

Hugh I. Kim, J. L. Beauchamp

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37 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Simple and fast identification of disulfide linkages in insulin is demonstrated with a peptic digest using the Route 66 method. This is accomplished by collisional activation of singly and doubly charged cationic Na+ and Ca2+ complexes generated using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Collisional activation of doubly charged metal complexes of peptides with intermolecular disulfide linkages yields two sets of singly charged paired products separated by 66 mass units resulting from selective S{single bond}C bond cleavages. Highly selective elimination of 66 mass units, which corresponds to the molecular weight of hydrogen disulfide (H2S2), is observed from singly charged metal complexes of peptides with disulfide linkages. The mechanism proposed for these processes is initiated by formation of a metal-stabilized enolate at Cys, followed by cleavage of the S{single bond}C bond. Further activation of the products yields sequence information that facilitates locating the position of the disulfide linkages in the peptic digest fragments. For example, the doubly charged Ca2+ complex of the peptic digest product GIVEQCCASVCSL/FVNQHLCGSHL yields paired products separated by 66 mass units resulting from selective S{single bond}C bond cleavages at an intermolecular disulfide linkage under low-energy collision-induced dissociation. Further activation of the product comprising the A chain reveals the presence of a second disulfide bridge, an intramolecular linkage. Experimental and theoretical studies of the disulfide linked model peptides provide mechanistic details for the selective cleavage of the S{single bond}C bond.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)157-166
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
Volume20
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2009 Jan 1
Externally publishedYes

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Alkaline Earth Metals
Coordination Complexes
Alkalies
Metal complexes
Disulfides
Insulin
Chemical activation
Digestion
Peptides
Electrospray ionization
Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry
single bond
Mass spectrometry
Hydrogen
Theoretical Models
Molecular Weight
Metals
Molecular weight

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Structural Biology
  • Spectroscopy

Cite this

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title = "Mapping Disulfide Bonds in Insulin with the Route 66 Method: Selective Cleavage of S{single bond}C Bonds Using Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metal Enolate Complexes",
abstract = "Simple and fast identification of disulfide linkages in insulin is demonstrated with a peptic digest using the Route 66 method. This is accomplished by collisional activation of singly and doubly charged cationic Na+ and Ca2+ complexes generated using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Collisional activation of doubly charged metal complexes of peptides with intermolecular disulfide linkages yields two sets of singly charged paired products separated by 66 mass units resulting from selective S{single bond}C bond cleavages. Highly selective elimination of 66 mass units, which corresponds to the molecular weight of hydrogen disulfide (H2S2), is observed from singly charged metal complexes of peptides with disulfide linkages. The mechanism proposed for these processes is initiated by formation of a metal-stabilized enolate at Cys, followed by cleavage of the S{single bond}C bond. Further activation of the products yields sequence information that facilitates locating the position of the disulfide linkages in the peptic digest fragments. For example, the doubly charged Ca2+ complex of the peptic digest product GIVEQCCASVCSL/FVNQHLCGSHL yields paired products separated by 66 mass units resulting from selective S{single bond}C bond cleavages at an intermolecular disulfide linkage under low-energy collision-induced dissociation. Further activation of the product comprising the A chain reveals the presence of a second disulfide bridge, an intramolecular linkage. Experimental and theoretical studies of the disulfide linked model peptides provide mechanistic details for the selective cleavage of the S{single bond}C bond.",
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N2 - Simple and fast identification of disulfide linkages in insulin is demonstrated with a peptic digest using the Route 66 method. This is accomplished by collisional activation of singly and doubly charged cationic Na+ and Ca2+ complexes generated using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Collisional activation of doubly charged metal complexes of peptides with intermolecular disulfide linkages yields two sets of singly charged paired products separated by 66 mass units resulting from selective S{single bond}C bond cleavages. Highly selective elimination of 66 mass units, which corresponds to the molecular weight of hydrogen disulfide (H2S2), is observed from singly charged metal complexes of peptides with disulfide linkages. The mechanism proposed for these processes is initiated by formation of a metal-stabilized enolate at Cys, followed by cleavage of the S{single bond}C bond. Further activation of the products yields sequence information that facilitates locating the position of the disulfide linkages in the peptic digest fragments. For example, the doubly charged Ca2+ complex of the peptic digest product GIVEQCCASVCSL/FVNQHLCGSHL yields paired products separated by 66 mass units resulting from selective S{single bond}C bond cleavages at an intermolecular disulfide linkage under low-energy collision-induced dissociation. Further activation of the product comprising the A chain reveals the presence of a second disulfide bridge, an intramolecular linkage. Experimental and theoretical studies of the disulfide linked model peptides provide mechanistic details for the selective cleavage of the S{single bond}C bond.

AB - Simple and fast identification of disulfide linkages in insulin is demonstrated with a peptic digest using the Route 66 method. This is accomplished by collisional activation of singly and doubly charged cationic Na+ and Ca2+ complexes generated using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Collisional activation of doubly charged metal complexes of peptides with intermolecular disulfide linkages yields two sets of singly charged paired products separated by 66 mass units resulting from selective S{single bond}C bond cleavages. Highly selective elimination of 66 mass units, which corresponds to the molecular weight of hydrogen disulfide (H2S2), is observed from singly charged metal complexes of peptides with disulfide linkages. The mechanism proposed for these processes is initiated by formation of a metal-stabilized enolate at Cys, followed by cleavage of the S{single bond}C bond. Further activation of the products yields sequence information that facilitates locating the position of the disulfide linkages in the peptic digest fragments. For example, the doubly charged Ca2+ complex of the peptic digest product GIVEQCCASVCSL/FVNQHLCGSHL yields paired products separated by 66 mass units resulting from selective S{single bond}C bond cleavages at an intermolecular disulfide linkage under low-energy collision-induced dissociation. Further activation of the product comprising the A chain reveals the presence of a second disulfide bridge, an intramolecular linkage. Experimental and theoretical studies of the disulfide linked model peptides provide mechanistic details for the selective cleavage of the S{single bond}C bond.

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