### Abstract

It has been conventionally believed that there exist 4n variables P, Q, V, (Formula presented.) for an n-bus system in the power flow computation, while we have 2n power flow equations. In this article, the authors argue that the number of variables in an n-bus system is not 4n but (Formula presented.), hence the power flow solution can be obtained without specifying the reference angle of the slack bus. We then deliver a mathematical reasoning why the number of variables in an n-bus system is not 4n but (Formula presented.).

Original language | English |
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Pages (from-to) | 1-4 |

Number of pages | 4 |

Journal | Electrical Engineering |

DOIs | |

Publication status | Accepted/In press - 2016 Jul 9 |

### Keywords

- Angle reference
- Bus angles
- Power flow
- Variables

### ASJC Scopus subject areas

- Applied Mathematics
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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## Cite this

Yang, S-D., & Lee, S. J. (Accepted/In press). Mathematical reconsideration of number of variables in power flow computation.

*Electrical Engineering*, 1-4. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00202-016-0383-4