Melphalan-induced apoptosis of EBV-transformed B cells through upregulation of TAp73 and XAF1 and nuclear import of XPA

Ga Bin Park, Yeong Seok Kim, Daejin Kim, Seonghan Kim, Hyun Kyung Lee, Dae Ho Cho, Wang Jae Lee, Dae Young Hur

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

12 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Melphalan (Mel) is widely used to treat patients with hematologic cancer, including multiple myeloma, but its mechanism of action in EBV-transformed B cells is poorly described. In this study, we demonstrate a novel mechanism by which transcriptionally active p73 (TAp73) induces translocation of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein-associated factor 1 (XAF1) and xeroderma pigmentosum group A (XPA) during apoptosis caused by Mel treatment. We observed that Mel induced significant generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and subsequent apoptosis, as well as an early phosphorylation of p38 MAPK that preceded expression of the mitochondria membrane potential disruption-related molecules and the cleavage of caspases. In particular, Mel led to upregulation of TAp73, XAF1, and Puma and induced XPA nuclear import and translocation of Bax into mitochondria. Mel-induced apoptosis was inhibited by pretreatment with the ROS scavenger 4-amino-2,4-pyrrolidine-dicarboxylic acid (APDC) and the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580. We supposed that ROS generation might be the first event in Mel-induced apoptosis, because APDC blocked the increase in ROS, p38 MAPK, and TAp73, but SB203580 did not block ROS generation. Moreover, Mel elicited activation of ATR, and APDC inhibited phosphorylation of ATR but not SB203580. APDC and SB203580 completely blocked XPA and Bax translocation. We conclude that Mel promotes TAp73-mediated XAF1 and Puma expression via ROS generation and ATR/p38 MAPK pathway activation, thereby triggering apoptosis. Our results provide evidence of a novel alternate regulatory mechanism of TAp73 and reveal that Mel may be a therapeutic drug for curing EBV-related malignancies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6281-6291
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Immunology
Volume191
Issue number12
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2013 Dec 15
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Xeroderma Pigmentosum
Melphalan
Cell Nucleus Active Transport
Human Herpesvirus 4
B-Lymphocytes
Up-Regulation
Apoptosis
Reactive Oxygen Species
p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
Puma
Mitochondria
X-Linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein
Phosphorylation
Caspases
Multiple Myeloma
Membrane Potentials
Neoplasms
pyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylic acid
SB 203580

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology

Cite this

Melphalan-induced apoptosis of EBV-transformed B cells through upregulation of TAp73 and XAF1 and nuclear import of XPA. / Park, Ga Bin; Kim, Yeong Seok; Kim, Daejin; Kim, Seonghan; Lee, Hyun Kyung; Cho, Dae Ho; Lee, Wang Jae; Hur, Dae Young.

In: Journal of Immunology, Vol. 191, No. 12, 15.12.2013, p. 6281-6291.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Park, Ga Bin ; Kim, Yeong Seok ; Kim, Daejin ; Kim, Seonghan ; Lee, Hyun Kyung ; Cho, Dae Ho ; Lee, Wang Jae ; Hur, Dae Young. / Melphalan-induced apoptosis of EBV-transformed B cells through upregulation of TAp73 and XAF1 and nuclear import of XPA. In: Journal of Immunology. 2013 ; Vol. 191, No. 12. pp. 6281-6291.
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AU - Cho, Dae Ho

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AU - Hur, Dae Young

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AB - Melphalan (Mel) is widely used to treat patients with hematologic cancer, including multiple myeloma, but its mechanism of action in EBV-transformed B cells is poorly described. In this study, we demonstrate a novel mechanism by which transcriptionally active p73 (TAp73) induces translocation of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein-associated factor 1 (XAF1) and xeroderma pigmentosum group A (XPA) during apoptosis caused by Mel treatment. We observed that Mel induced significant generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and subsequent apoptosis, as well as an early phosphorylation of p38 MAPK that preceded expression of the mitochondria membrane potential disruption-related molecules and the cleavage of caspases. In particular, Mel led to upregulation of TAp73, XAF1, and Puma and induced XPA nuclear import and translocation of Bax into mitochondria. Mel-induced apoptosis was inhibited by pretreatment with the ROS scavenger 4-amino-2,4-pyrrolidine-dicarboxylic acid (APDC) and the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580. We supposed that ROS generation might be the first event in Mel-induced apoptosis, because APDC blocked the increase in ROS, p38 MAPK, and TAp73, but SB203580 did not block ROS generation. Moreover, Mel elicited activation of ATR, and APDC inhibited phosphorylation of ATR but not SB203580. APDC and SB203580 completely blocked XPA and Bax translocation. We conclude that Mel promotes TAp73-mediated XAF1 and Puma expression via ROS generation and ATR/p38 MAPK pathway activation, thereby triggering apoptosis. Our results provide evidence of a novel alternate regulatory mechanism of TAp73 and reveal that Mel may be a therapeutic drug for curing EBV-related malignancies.

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