Methylammonium Chloride Induces Intermediate Phase Stabilization for Efficient Perovskite Solar Cells

Minjin Kim, Gi Hwan Kim, Tae Kyung Lee, In Woo Choi, Hye Won Choi, Yimhyun Jo, Yung Jin Yoon, Jae Won Kim, Jiyun Lee, Daihong Huh, Heon Lee, Sang Kyu Kwak, Jin Young Kim, Dong Suk Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

147 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

One of the most effective methods to achieve high-performance perovskite solar cells has been to include additives that serve as dopants, crystallization agents, or passivate defect sites. Cl-based additives are among the most prevalent in literature, yet their exact role is still uncertain. In this work, we systematically study the function of methylammonium chloride (MACl) additive in formamidinium lead iodide (FAPbI3)-based perovskite. Using density functional theory, we provide a theoretical framework for understanding the interaction of MACl with a perovskite. We show that MACl successfully induces an intermediate to the pure FAPbI3 α-phase without annealing. The formation energy is related to the amount of incorporated MACl. By tuning the incorporation of MACl, the perovskite film quality can be significantly improved, exhibiting a 6× increase in grain size, a 3× increase in phase crystallinity, and a 4.3× increase in photoluminescence lifetime. The optimized solar cells achieved a certified efficiency of 23.48%. Numerous effective methods have been developed toward achieving high-performance perovskite solar cells. The additives are one of the most effective ways of achieving high performance. Cl-based additives are among the most prevalent in literature; however, their exact role is still uncertain. Herein, we systematically researched the effects of methylammonium chloride (MACl) additive using analysis of photo-physical properties and density functional theory. The highest efficiency achieved was 24.02%, certified as 23.48%, and the resultant devices showed better thermal stabilities and photostabilities than the pristine devices. Kim and co-workers report systematical studies with methylammonium chloride (MACl) in formamidinium lead iodide (FAPbI3)-based perovskite thin films. The MACl addition could induce the intermediate phase with pure α-phase without annealing, effectively stabilizing the structure, only through cationic site substitution. The film quality can be significantly improved, exhibiting a 6× increase in grain size, a 3× increase in phase crystallinity, and a 4.3× increase in photoluminescence lifetime. The resulting optimized solar cells achieved a peak-scan efficiency of above 24%.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2179-2192
Number of pages14
JournalJoule
Volume3
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Sep 18

Keywords

  • additives
  • DFT calculation
  • high crystallinity
  • methylammonium chloride
  • perovskite solar cell
  • phase stability
  • surface morphology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Energy(all)

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  • Cite this

    Kim, M., Kim, G. H., Lee, T. K., Choi, I. W., Choi, H. W., Jo, Y., Yoon, Y. J., Kim, J. W., Lee, J., Huh, D., Lee, H., Kwak, S. K., Kim, J. Y., & Kim, D. S. (2019). Methylammonium Chloride Induces Intermediate Phase Stabilization for Efficient Perovskite Solar Cells. Joule, 3(9), 2179-2192. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joule.2019.06.014