Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is characterized according to the presence or absence of nasal polyps (NPs) and displays nasal microbiota dysbiosis. However, optimal sampling methods of the nasal microbiome in CRS have not been identified. We aimed to assess the microbial composition in patients with CRS, comparing different sampling methods (swab and tissue biopsy), tissue types (uncinate tissue and NP), and disease subtypes. Samples were obtained by swabbing the middle meatus and taking a biopsy of uncinate tissue (UT) in patients with CRS with (CRSwNP, N = 8) or without NP (CRSsNP, N = 6) and controls (N = 8). NPs were also harvested in CRSwNP. DNAs were extracted from fifty-two samples and analyzed by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. As a result, a great interpersonal variance was observed in nasal swabs, while UT samples presented distinct microbiome with low inter-personal differences. Moreover, the UT microbiomes were further differentiated into three clusters which are associated with disease status (control, CRSsNP, and CRSwNP). Compared to UT, NP revealed a unique microbiome profile with significantly less bacterial diversity. Prevotella was the genus whose abundance was negatively correlated with disease severity in NP. In conclusion, tissue samples are better specimens than nasal swabs for assessing the microbiomes of CRS patients. Several bacteria in UT and NP tissues revealed an association with clinical severity of CRSwNP.
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