Reactive oxygen species (ROS) actively participate in microglia-mediated pathogenesis as pro-inflammatory molecules. However, little is known about the involvement of specific antioxidants in maintaining the microglial oxidative balance. We demonstrate that microglial peroxiredoxin (Prx) 5 expression is up-regulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) through activation of the ROS-sensitive signaling pathway and is involved in attenuation of both microglial activation and nitric oxide (NO) generation. Unlike in stimulation of oxidative insults with paraquat and hydrogen peroxide, Prx V expression is highly sensitive to LPS-stimulation in microglia. Reduction of ROS level by treatment with either NADPH oxidase inhibitor or antioxidant ablates LPS-mediated Prx V up-regulation in BV-2 microglial cells and is closely associated with the activation of the c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway. This suggests the involvement of ROS/JNK signaling in LPS-mediated Prx V induction. Furthermore, NO induces Prx V up-regulation that is ablated by the addition of inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor or deleted mutation of inducible nitric oxide synthase in LPS-stimulated microglia. Therefore, these results suggest that Prx V is induced by cooperative action among the ROS, RNS, and JNK signaling cascades. Interestingly, knockdown of Prx V expression causes the acceleration of microglia activation, including augmented ROS generation and JNK-dependent NO production. In summary, we demonstrate that Prx V plays a key role in the microglial activation process through modulation of the balance between ROS/NO generation and the corresponding JNK cascade activation.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience