Molecular coevolution of neuropeptides gonadotropin-releasing hormone and kisspeptin with their cognate G protein-coupled receptors

Dong Kyu Kim, Eun Bee Cho, Mi Jin Moon, Sumi Park, Jong-Ik Hwang, Jean Luc Do Rego, Hubert Vaudry, Jae Young Seong

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35 Citations (Scopus)


The neuropeptides gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and kisspeptin (KiSS), and their receptors gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR) and kisspeptin receptor (KiSSR) play key roles in vertebrate reproduction. Multiple paralogous isoforms of these genes have been identified in various vertebrate species.Two rounds of genome duplication in early vertebrates likely contributed to the generation of these paralogous genes. Genome synteny and phylogenetic analyses in a variety of vertebrate species have provided insights into the evolutionary origin of and relationship between paralogous genes. The paralogous forms of these neuropeptides and their receptors have coevolved to retain high selectivity of the ligand-receptor interaction.These paralogous forms have become subfunctionalized, neofunctionalized, or dysfunctionalized during evolution. This article reviews the evolutionary mechanism of GnRH/GnRHR and KiSS/KiSSR, and the fate of the duplicated paralogs in vertebrates.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3
JournalFrontiers in Neuroscience
Issue numberJAN
Publication statusPublished - 2012 Jun 11



  • Comparative genomics
  • Evolution
  • G protein-coupled receptors
  • Gonadotropin-releasing hormone
  • Kisspeptin

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)

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