Molecular phylogeny and dissemination of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I viewed within the context of primate evolution and human migration.

R. Yanagihara, N. Saitou, V. R. Nerurkar, K. J. Song, I. Bastian, G. Franchini, D. C. Gajdusek

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

A renewed interest in the emergence and evolution of the primate T-cell lymphotropic viruses has followed the discovery of genetically distinct variants of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) in Melanesia and Australia. Phylogenetic trees based on selected regions of the gag, pol, env and pX genes of HTLV-I from widely separated geographic regions and of simian T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (STLV-I) from African and Asian catarrhines, constructed using the neighbor-joining and maximum parsimony methods, indicated that the Australo-Melanesian and cosmopolitan strains of HTLV-I have evolved along separate geographically dependent lineages, with African STLV-I strains clustering with cosmopolitan HTLV-I strains and Asian STLV-I strains diverging from the common ancestral virus before the Australo-Melanesian HTLV-I strains. When viewed within the context of non-human primate evolution and human occupation of Australia and Melanesia, the rate of molecular change of HTLV-I and STLV-I is approximately 2.5-6.8 x 10(-7) substitutions per site per year. Overall, the sequence and phylogenetic analyses are in accord with interspecies virus transmission among non-human primates, as well as between non-human primates and humans, with independent evolution of HTLV-I in Southeast Asia and in Africa, and with dissemination of HTLV-I by forced or voluntary movements of human populations. The immunosuppressive and T-cell activation properties of HTLV-I places at added risk these Australian Aboriginal and Melanesian populations, some of which are in imminent threat of infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)S145-161
JournalCellular and molecular biology (Noisy-le-Grand, France)
Volume41 Suppl 1
Publication statusPublished - 1995
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Cell Biology

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