Glyphosate-based herbicide (GBH) is the most widely used herbicide worldwide and has long been considered to have significantly low toxicity to non-target soil invertebrates based on short-term toxicity tests (<56 d). However, long-term GBH toxicity assessment is necessary as GBH is repeatedly applied in the same field annually because of the advent of glyphosate-resistant crops. In this study, a multigeneration test was conducted where Allonychiurus kimi (Collembola) was exposed to GBH for three generations (referred to as F0, F1, and F2) to evaluate the long-term toxic effect. The endpoints used were adult survival and juvenile production for the individual level toxicity assessment. Phospholipid profile and population age structure were the endpoints used for sub-individual and population levels, respectively. GBH was observed to have no negative effects on adult survivals of all generations, but juvenile production was found to decrease in a concentration-dependent manner, with EC50s being estimated as 572.5, 274.8, and 59.8 mg a.i. kg−1 in the F0, F1, and F2 generations, respectively. The age structure of A. kimi population produced in the test of all generations was altered by GBH exposure, mainly because of the decrease in the number of young juveniles. Further, differences between the phospholipid profiles of the control and GBH treatments became apparent over generations, with PA 16:0, PA 12:0, and PS 42:0 lipids not being detected at the highest concentration of 741 mg kg−1 in F2. Considering all our findings from sub-individual to population levels, repeated and long-term use of GBH could have significantly higher negative impacts on non-target soil organisms than expected.
- Risk assessment
- Transgenerational effect
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis