Nanofibers Comprising Yolk-Shell Sn@void@SnO/SnO2 and Hollow SnO/SnO2 and SnO2 Nanospheres via the Kirkendall Diffusion Effect and Their Electrochemical Properties

Jung Sang Cho, Yun Chan Kang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

90 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Nanofibers with a unique structure comprising Sn@void@SnO/SnO2 yolk-shell nanospheres and hollow SnO/SnO2 and SnO2 nanospheres are prepared by applying the nanoscale Kirkendall diffusion process in conventional electrospinning process. Under a reducing atmosphere, post-treatment of tin 2-ethylhexanoate-polyvinylpyrrolidone electrospun nanofibers produce carbon nanofibers with embedded spherical Sn nanopowders. The Sn nanopowders are linearly aligned along the carbon nanofiber axis without aggregation of the nanopowders. Under an air atmosphere, oxidation of the Sn-C composite nanofibers produce nanofibers comprising Sn@void@SnO/SnO2 yolk-shell nanospheres and hollow SnO/SnO2 and SnO2 nanospheres, depending on the post-treatment temperature. The mean sizes of the hollow nanospheres embedded within tin oxide nanofibers post-treated at 500 °C and 600 °C are 146 and 117 nm, respectively. For the 250th cycle, the discharge capacities of the nanofibers prepared by the nanoscale Kirkendall diffusion process post-treated at 400 °C, 500 °C, and 600 °C at a high current density of 2 A g-1 are 663, 630, and 567 mA h g-1, respectively. The corresponding capacity retentions are 77%, 84%, and 78%, as calculated from the second cycle. The nanofibers prepared by applying the nanoscale Kirkendall diffusion process exhibit superior electrochemical properties compared with those of the porous-structured SnO2 nanofibers prepared by the conventional post-treatment process. Nanofibers comprising yolk-shell Sn@void@SnO/SnO2 nanospheres and hollow SnO/SnO2 and SnO2 nanospheres are generated by applying the nanoscale Kirkendall diffusion process during conventional electrospinning. The nanofibers exhibit superior electrochemical properties compared with those of porous-structured SnO2 nanofibers prepared by the conventional post-treatment process.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4673-4681
Number of pages9
JournalSmall
Volume11
Issue number36
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2015 Sep 1

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Keywords

  • electrospinning
  • Kirkendall diffusion
  • Kirkendall effect
  • lithium ion batteries
  • nanostructured materials
  • tin oxide

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Biomaterials
  • Engineering (miscellaneous)

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