Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a common poststroke complication. However, the neural substrates associated with CRPS remain unclear. We investigated the neural correlates associated with poststroke CRPS using voxel-based lesion‒symptom mapping (VLSM) analysis. Among 145 patients with ischemic stroke, 35 were diagnosed with CRPS and categorized into the poststroke CRPS group, and the remaining 110 into the control group. We compared the clinical characteristics between the groups. VLSM analysis was performed to identify the brain region associated with the development of poststroke CRPS. The clinical findings suggested that the poststroke CRPS group had lower muscle strength; lower scores on Fugl‒Meyer assessment, Manual Function Test, Mini-Mental Status Examination; and higher incidence of absent somatosensory evoked potentials in the median nerve than the control group. The head of the caudate nucleus, putamen, and white matter complexes in the corona radiata were significantly associated with poststroke CRPS development in ischemic stroke patients. These results facilitate an understanding of poststroke CRPS pathophysiology. Monitoring patients with lesions in these structures may aid the prevention and early treatment of poststroke CRPS.
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