New decontamination method based on caprylic acid in combination with citric acid or vanillin for eliminating Cronobacter sakazakii and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in reconstituted infant formula

M. J. Choi, S. A. Kim, N. Y. Lee, Min-Suk Rhee

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24 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The antimicrobial effects of natural compounds (caprylic acid, CA; citric acid, CTA; and vanillin, VNL) on the inactivation of Cronobacter sakazakii and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium were examined in reconstituted infant formula. The samples were treated with: 1) CA, CTA, or VNL alone (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 60, and 80mM); 2) a combination of CA (10 and 20mM) and CTA (15 and 30mM); and 3) a combination of CA (10 and 20mM) and VNL (15 and 30mM), at mild feeding temperatures (40°C and 45°C), and the bacterial populations were assayed periodically (0, 5, 10, and 30min). For both bacteria, the combined treatments had marked synergistic antimicrobial effects compared with the sum of the effects of each individual treatment. For example, there was no noticeable reduction (P>0.05) in the population of C. sakazakii following an individual treatment with 20mM CA or 30mM CTA for 5min at 40°C, whereas the population was reduced to undetectable levels (reduction>7.3 log CFU/ml) following treatment with a combination of CA and CTA (20 CA+30 CTA for 5min at 40°C). As the temperature increased, the bactericidal effect was stronger at all time points with a synergistic effect. In a validation assay using a low level inoculum (approximately 103CFU/ml) of desiccation-stressed bacteria in certain conditions, the combined treatments (e.g., CA 10mM+CTA 30mM for 5min at 45°C for C. sakazakii, and CA 10mM+VNL 15mM for 10min at 45°C for S. Typhimurium) completely destroyed the bacteria with no recovery of cell viability. Disintegration of the membrane and changes in the cell structure or morphology, such as plasmolysis and membrane disruption, were detected by flow cytometry and electron microscopy, respectively. These methods use antimicrobials that could be applied as food additives in infant formula, which may help to eliminate bacteria.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)499-507
Number of pages9
JournalInternational Journal of Food Microbiology
Volume166
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2013 Sep 16

Fingerprint

Cronobacter sakazakii
octanoic acid
Infant Formula
Salmonella
Salmonella enterica
Decontamination
vanillin
Citric acid
decontamination
infant formulas
Salmonella Typhimurium
Citric Acid
citric acid
Bacteria
Acids
bacteria
anti-infective properties
Food additives
Population
Membranes

Keywords

  • Caprylic acid
  • Citric acid
  • Combined treatment
  • Cronobacter sakazakii
  • Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium
  • Vanillin

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Microbiology
  • Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality

Cite this

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title = "New decontamination method based on caprylic acid in combination with citric acid or vanillin for eliminating Cronobacter sakazakii and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in reconstituted infant formula",
abstract = "The antimicrobial effects of natural compounds (caprylic acid, CA; citric acid, CTA; and vanillin, VNL) on the inactivation of Cronobacter sakazakii and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium were examined in reconstituted infant formula. The samples were treated with: 1) CA, CTA, or VNL alone (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 60, and 80mM); 2) a combination of CA (10 and 20mM) and CTA (15 and 30mM); and 3) a combination of CA (10 and 20mM) and VNL (15 and 30mM), at mild feeding temperatures (40°C and 45°C), and the bacterial populations were assayed periodically (0, 5, 10, and 30min). For both bacteria, the combined treatments had marked synergistic antimicrobial effects compared with the sum of the effects of each individual treatment. For example, there was no noticeable reduction (P>0.05) in the population of C. sakazakii following an individual treatment with 20mM CA or 30mM CTA for 5min at 40°C, whereas the population was reduced to undetectable levels (reduction>7.3 log CFU/ml) following treatment with a combination of CA and CTA (20 CA+30 CTA for 5min at 40°C). As the temperature increased, the bactericidal effect was stronger at all time points with a synergistic effect. In a validation assay using a low level inoculum (approximately 103CFU/ml) of desiccation-stressed bacteria in certain conditions, the combined treatments (e.g., CA 10mM+CTA 30mM for 5min at 45°C for C. sakazakii, and CA 10mM+VNL 15mM for 10min at 45°C for S. Typhimurium) completely destroyed the bacteria with no recovery of cell viability. Disintegration of the membrane and changes in the cell structure or morphology, such as plasmolysis and membrane disruption, were detected by flow cytometry and electron microscopy, respectively. These methods use antimicrobials that could be applied as food additives in infant formula, which may help to eliminate bacteria.",
keywords = "Caprylic acid, Citric acid, Combined treatment, Cronobacter sakazakii, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, Vanillin",
author = "Choi, {M. J.} and Kim, {S. A.} and Lee, {N. Y.} and Min-Suk Rhee",
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T1 - New decontamination method based on caprylic acid in combination with citric acid or vanillin for eliminating Cronobacter sakazakii and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in reconstituted infant formula

AU - Choi, M. J.

AU - Kim, S. A.

AU - Lee, N. Y.

AU - Rhee, Min-Suk

PY - 2013/9/16

Y1 - 2013/9/16

N2 - The antimicrobial effects of natural compounds (caprylic acid, CA; citric acid, CTA; and vanillin, VNL) on the inactivation of Cronobacter sakazakii and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium were examined in reconstituted infant formula. The samples were treated with: 1) CA, CTA, or VNL alone (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 60, and 80mM); 2) a combination of CA (10 and 20mM) and CTA (15 and 30mM); and 3) a combination of CA (10 and 20mM) and VNL (15 and 30mM), at mild feeding temperatures (40°C and 45°C), and the bacterial populations were assayed periodically (0, 5, 10, and 30min). For both bacteria, the combined treatments had marked synergistic antimicrobial effects compared with the sum of the effects of each individual treatment. For example, there was no noticeable reduction (P>0.05) in the population of C. sakazakii following an individual treatment with 20mM CA or 30mM CTA for 5min at 40°C, whereas the population was reduced to undetectable levels (reduction>7.3 log CFU/ml) following treatment with a combination of CA and CTA (20 CA+30 CTA for 5min at 40°C). As the temperature increased, the bactericidal effect was stronger at all time points with a synergistic effect. In a validation assay using a low level inoculum (approximately 103CFU/ml) of desiccation-stressed bacteria in certain conditions, the combined treatments (e.g., CA 10mM+CTA 30mM for 5min at 45°C for C. sakazakii, and CA 10mM+VNL 15mM for 10min at 45°C for S. Typhimurium) completely destroyed the bacteria with no recovery of cell viability. Disintegration of the membrane and changes in the cell structure or morphology, such as plasmolysis and membrane disruption, were detected by flow cytometry and electron microscopy, respectively. These methods use antimicrobials that could be applied as food additives in infant formula, which may help to eliminate bacteria.

AB - The antimicrobial effects of natural compounds (caprylic acid, CA; citric acid, CTA; and vanillin, VNL) on the inactivation of Cronobacter sakazakii and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium were examined in reconstituted infant formula. The samples were treated with: 1) CA, CTA, or VNL alone (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 60, and 80mM); 2) a combination of CA (10 and 20mM) and CTA (15 and 30mM); and 3) a combination of CA (10 and 20mM) and VNL (15 and 30mM), at mild feeding temperatures (40°C and 45°C), and the bacterial populations were assayed periodically (0, 5, 10, and 30min). For both bacteria, the combined treatments had marked synergistic antimicrobial effects compared with the sum of the effects of each individual treatment. For example, there was no noticeable reduction (P>0.05) in the population of C. sakazakii following an individual treatment with 20mM CA or 30mM CTA for 5min at 40°C, whereas the population was reduced to undetectable levels (reduction>7.3 log CFU/ml) following treatment with a combination of CA and CTA (20 CA+30 CTA for 5min at 40°C). As the temperature increased, the bactericidal effect was stronger at all time points with a synergistic effect. In a validation assay using a low level inoculum (approximately 103CFU/ml) of desiccation-stressed bacteria in certain conditions, the combined treatments (e.g., CA 10mM+CTA 30mM for 5min at 45°C for C. sakazakii, and CA 10mM+VNL 15mM for 10min at 45°C for S. Typhimurium) completely destroyed the bacteria with no recovery of cell viability. Disintegration of the membrane and changes in the cell structure or morphology, such as plasmolysis and membrane disruption, were detected by flow cytometry and electron microscopy, respectively. These methods use antimicrobials that could be applied as food additives in infant formula, which may help to eliminate bacteria.

KW - Caprylic acid

KW - Citric acid

KW - Combined treatment

KW - Cronobacter sakazakii

KW - Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium

KW - Vanillin

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JO - International Journal of Food Microbiology

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