Non-destructive evaluation of the grouted ratio of a pipe roof support system in tunneling

Jung Doung Yu, Young Ho Hong, Yong Hoon Byun, Jong-Sub Lee

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8 Citations (Scopus)


The pipe roof system is widely used in the New Austrian Tunneling Method (NATM) as the main support system. Thus, the integrity of the pipe roof system influences the tunnel stability. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the grouted ratio of a pipe roof system using a non-destructive method in the laboratory and in the field. In the laboratory tests, four specimens embedded in soils and five non-embedded specimens are prepared with different grouted ratios of 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%. The steel pipes are 6 m in length, 60.5 mm in external diameter, and 3.8 mm in thickness. Field tests are conducted with two fully grouted pipes with dimensions of 12 m in length, 60.5 mm in external diameter, and 3.8 mm in thickness. The reflection method of guided waves, which are generated by a hammer impact and are measured using an acoustic emission sensor, is used for the non-destructive testing. Experimental studies demonstrate that the group velocities and the main frequencies of the guided waves decrease as the grouted ratio increases for embedded and non-embedded specimen in soils. The variation of the main frequency, however, is more significant than the variation of the group velocity. In addition, the group velocities and main frequencies of the field specimens are lower than those of the embedded specimens. This study demonstrates that the variations of the group velocity and main frequency may be used effectively to estimate the grout ratio of a pipe roof system in tunneling.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-11
Number of pages11
JournalTunnelling and Underground Space Technology
Publication statusPublished - 2016 Jun 1



  • Fourier transform
  • Frequency response
  • Group velocity
  • Grouted ratio
  • Guided waves
  • Non-destructive testing
  • Pipe roof system
  • Wavelet transform

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
  • Building and Construction

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