Non-destructive Method for Evaluating Grouted Ratio of Soil Nail Using Electromagnetic Wave

Jong-Sub Lee, Jung Doung Yu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Although soil nails have been widely used for stabilizing slopes, they are often only partially grouted. Thus, grouted ratio of soil nails should be evaluated to prevent landslides. The purpose of this study was to investigate the suitability of a non-destructive method using electromagnetic waves for evaluating grouted ratio of soil nails. Experimental studies were performed with steel bars, partially grouted steel bars, and fully grouted steel bars in air. Partially and fully grouted steel bars were also installed in soils to simulate soil nails installed on slopes. Electromagnetic waves were generated and received using a time domain reflectometer by configuring a two-conductor transmission line formed by two parallel steel bars or two parallel grouted steel bars. Results of experiments showed that the respective round-trip travel time of electromagnetic waves increased with increasing length of the steel bar, grouted steel bar in air, and grouted steel bar in soils. The velocity of electromagnetic waves was the greatest in steel bars but the lowest in grouted steel bars in soils. In addition, the velocity of the electromagnetic waves decreased with increasing grouted ratio. This study suggests that electromagnetic waves might be useful for evaluating grouted ratios of soil nails to stabilize slopes.

Original languageEnglish
Article number41
JournalJournal of Nondestructive Evaluation
Volume38
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Jun 1

Fingerprint

Nails
Electromagnetic waves
Soils
Steel
Reflectometers
Landslides
Travel time
Air
Electric lines

Keywords

  • Electromagnetic wave
  • Grouted ratio
  • Non-destructive method
  • Soil nail

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering

Cite this

Non-destructive Method for Evaluating Grouted Ratio of Soil Nail Using Electromagnetic Wave. / Lee, Jong-Sub; Yu, Jung Doung.

In: Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation, Vol. 38, No. 2, 41, 01.06.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{66280fb770094c32b6fb00837cd90e81,
title = "Non-destructive Method for Evaluating Grouted Ratio of Soil Nail Using Electromagnetic Wave",
abstract = "Although soil nails have been widely used for stabilizing slopes, they are often only partially grouted. Thus, grouted ratio of soil nails should be evaluated to prevent landslides. The purpose of this study was to investigate the suitability of a non-destructive method using electromagnetic waves for evaluating grouted ratio of soil nails. Experimental studies were performed with steel bars, partially grouted steel bars, and fully grouted steel bars in air. Partially and fully grouted steel bars were also installed in soils to simulate soil nails installed on slopes. Electromagnetic waves were generated and received using a time domain reflectometer by configuring a two-conductor transmission line formed by two parallel steel bars or two parallel grouted steel bars. Results of experiments showed that the respective round-trip travel time of electromagnetic waves increased with increasing length of the steel bar, grouted steel bar in air, and grouted steel bar in soils. The velocity of electromagnetic waves was the greatest in steel bars but the lowest in grouted steel bars in soils. In addition, the velocity of the electromagnetic waves decreased with increasing grouted ratio. This study suggests that electromagnetic waves might be useful for evaluating grouted ratios of soil nails to stabilize slopes.",
keywords = "Electromagnetic wave, Grouted ratio, Non-destructive method, Soil nail",
author = "Jong-Sub Lee and Yu, {Jung Doung}",
year = "2019",
month = "6",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1007/s10921-019-0582-9",
language = "English",
volume = "38",
journal = "Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation",
issn = "0195-9298",
publisher = "Springer New York",
number = "2",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Non-destructive Method for Evaluating Grouted Ratio of Soil Nail Using Electromagnetic Wave

AU - Lee, Jong-Sub

AU - Yu, Jung Doung

PY - 2019/6/1

Y1 - 2019/6/1

N2 - Although soil nails have been widely used for stabilizing slopes, they are often only partially grouted. Thus, grouted ratio of soil nails should be evaluated to prevent landslides. The purpose of this study was to investigate the suitability of a non-destructive method using electromagnetic waves for evaluating grouted ratio of soil nails. Experimental studies were performed with steel bars, partially grouted steel bars, and fully grouted steel bars in air. Partially and fully grouted steel bars were also installed in soils to simulate soil nails installed on slopes. Electromagnetic waves were generated and received using a time domain reflectometer by configuring a two-conductor transmission line formed by two parallel steel bars or two parallel grouted steel bars. Results of experiments showed that the respective round-trip travel time of electromagnetic waves increased with increasing length of the steel bar, grouted steel bar in air, and grouted steel bar in soils. The velocity of electromagnetic waves was the greatest in steel bars but the lowest in grouted steel bars in soils. In addition, the velocity of the electromagnetic waves decreased with increasing grouted ratio. This study suggests that electromagnetic waves might be useful for evaluating grouted ratios of soil nails to stabilize slopes.

AB - Although soil nails have been widely used for stabilizing slopes, they are often only partially grouted. Thus, grouted ratio of soil nails should be evaluated to prevent landslides. The purpose of this study was to investigate the suitability of a non-destructive method using electromagnetic waves for evaluating grouted ratio of soil nails. Experimental studies were performed with steel bars, partially grouted steel bars, and fully grouted steel bars in air. Partially and fully grouted steel bars were also installed in soils to simulate soil nails installed on slopes. Electromagnetic waves were generated and received using a time domain reflectometer by configuring a two-conductor transmission line formed by two parallel steel bars or two parallel grouted steel bars. Results of experiments showed that the respective round-trip travel time of electromagnetic waves increased with increasing length of the steel bar, grouted steel bar in air, and grouted steel bar in soils. The velocity of electromagnetic waves was the greatest in steel bars but the lowest in grouted steel bars in soils. In addition, the velocity of the electromagnetic waves decreased with increasing grouted ratio. This study suggests that electromagnetic waves might be useful for evaluating grouted ratios of soil nails to stabilize slopes.

KW - Electromagnetic wave

KW - Grouted ratio

KW - Non-destructive method

KW - Soil nail

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85063476700&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85063476700&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1007/s10921-019-0582-9

DO - 10.1007/s10921-019-0582-9

M3 - Article

VL - 38

JO - Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation

JF - Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation

SN - 0195-9298

IS - 2

M1 - 41

ER -