Nonlinear dynamics of ion concentration polarization in capacitive deionization

Hyungsub Lee, Dongho Kim, Ji Yoon Kang, Ki Wan Bong, Soo Hyun Lee, Rhokyun Kwak

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Capacitive deionization (CDI) is an emerging desalination technique by utilizing the electrosorption of porous electrodes. Thus far, only linear concentration profiles in bulk electrolyte between the electrodes have been observed, during ion charging (ion depletion) or ion discharging (ion enrichment). This so-called linear ion concentration polarization (ICP) can be predicted by the simple convective-diffusion model. In this study, we demonstrate that capacitive charging can induce nonlinear concentration profiles in the electrolyte. To visualize nonlinear ICP dynamics, a miniaturized CDI platform is developed to observe in situ ion concentration profiles. Determined by the ion flux mismatching of electrosorption and bulk ion transport, we discovered four ICP regimes in CDI – steady, linear ICP, delayed-nonlinear ICP, and nonlinear ICP. We directly observed the signatures of nonlinear ICP: i) flat depletion zone with extremely low ion concentration, and ii) corresponding exponential current drop. Based on this observation, two scaling models are formulated to predict i) when the nonlinear ICP occurs, and ii) the propagation speed of the flat depletion zone. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first microscopic characterization of ICP in CDI systems, and it firmly establishes the existence of nonlinear ion transport dynamics in CDI's bulk electrolyte.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)14-24
Number of pages11
JournalDesalination
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019 May 15

Fingerprint

polarization
Ions
Polarization
ion
electrolyte
Electrolytes
electrode
Electrodes
Desalination
desalination

Keywords

  • Capacitive deionization
  • Desalination
  • Ion concentration polarization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Water Science and Technology
  • Mechanical Engineering

Cite this

Nonlinear dynamics of ion concentration polarization in capacitive deionization. / Lee, Hyungsub; Kim, Dongho; Kang, Ji Yoon; Bong, Ki Wan; Lee, Soo Hyun; Kwak, Rhokyun.

In: Desalination, 15.05.2019, p. 14-24.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Lee, Hyungsub ; Kim, Dongho ; Kang, Ji Yoon ; Bong, Ki Wan ; Lee, Soo Hyun ; Kwak, Rhokyun. / Nonlinear dynamics of ion concentration polarization in capacitive deionization. In: Desalination. 2019 ; pp. 14-24.
@article{e7e9f54b9a3a4080a5a145a4fc3f2a31,
title = "Nonlinear dynamics of ion concentration polarization in capacitive deionization",
abstract = "Capacitive deionization (CDI) is an emerging desalination technique by utilizing the electrosorption of porous electrodes. Thus far, only linear concentration profiles in bulk electrolyte between the electrodes have been observed, during ion charging (ion depletion) or ion discharging (ion enrichment). This so-called linear ion concentration polarization (ICP) can be predicted by the simple convective-diffusion model. In this study, we demonstrate that capacitive charging can induce nonlinear concentration profiles in the electrolyte. To visualize nonlinear ICP dynamics, a miniaturized CDI platform is developed to observe in situ ion concentration profiles. Determined by the ion flux mismatching of electrosorption and bulk ion transport, we discovered four ICP regimes in CDI – steady, linear ICP, delayed-nonlinear ICP, and nonlinear ICP. We directly observed the signatures of nonlinear ICP: i) flat depletion zone with extremely low ion concentration, and ii) corresponding exponential current drop. Based on this observation, two scaling models are formulated to predict i) when the nonlinear ICP occurs, and ii) the propagation speed of the flat depletion zone. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first microscopic characterization of ICP in CDI systems, and it firmly establishes the existence of nonlinear ion transport dynamics in CDI's bulk electrolyte.",
keywords = "Capacitive deionization, Desalination, Ion concentration polarization",
author = "Hyungsub Lee and Dongho Kim and Kang, {Ji Yoon} and Bong, {Ki Wan} and Lee, {Soo Hyun} and Rhokyun Kwak",
year = "2019",
month = "5",
day = "15",
doi = "10.1016/j.desal.2019.01.032",
language = "English",
pages = "14--24",
journal = "Desalination",
issn = "0011-9164",
publisher = "Elsevier",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Nonlinear dynamics of ion concentration polarization in capacitive deionization

AU - Lee, Hyungsub

AU - Kim, Dongho

AU - Kang, Ji Yoon

AU - Bong, Ki Wan

AU - Lee, Soo Hyun

AU - Kwak, Rhokyun

PY - 2019/5/15

Y1 - 2019/5/15

N2 - Capacitive deionization (CDI) is an emerging desalination technique by utilizing the electrosorption of porous electrodes. Thus far, only linear concentration profiles in bulk electrolyte between the electrodes have been observed, during ion charging (ion depletion) or ion discharging (ion enrichment). This so-called linear ion concentration polarization (ICP) can be predicted by the simple convective-diffusion model. In this study, we demonstrate that capacitive charging can induce nonlinear concentration profiles in the electrolyte. To visualize nonlinear ICP dynamics, a miniaturized CDI platform is developed to observe in situ ion concentration profiles. Determined by the ion flux mismatching of electrosorption and bulk ion transport, we discovered four ICP regimes in CDI – steady, linear ICP, delayed-nonlinear ICP, and nonlinear ICP. We directly observed the signatures of nonlinear ICP: i) flat depletion zone with extremely low ion concentration, and ii) corresponding exponential current drop. Based on this observation, two scaling models are formulated to predict i) when the nonlinear ICP occurs, and ii) the propagation speed of the flat depletion zone. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first microscopic characterization of ICP in CDI systems, and it firmly establishes the existence of nonlinear ion transport dynamics in CDI's bulk electrolyte.

AB - Capacitive deionization (CDI) is an emerging desalination technique by utilizing the electrosorption of porous electrodes. Thus far, only linear concentration profiles in bulk electrolyte between the electrodes have been observed, during ion charging (ion depletion) or ion discharging (ion enrichment). This so-called linear ion concentration polarization (ICP) can be predicted by the simple convective-diffusion model. In this study, we demonstrate that capacitive charging can induce nonlinear concentration profiles in the electrolyte. To visualize nonlinear ICP dynamics, a miniaturized CDI platform is developed to observe in situ ion concentration profiles. Determined by the ion flux mismatching of electrosorption and bulk ion transport, we discovered four ICP regimes in CDI – steady, linear ICP, delayed-nonlinear ICP, and nonlinear ICP. We directly observed the signatures of nonlinear ICP: i) flat depletion zone with extremely low ion concentration, and ii) corresponding exponential current drop. Based on this observation, two scaling models are formulated to predict i) when the nonlinear ICP occurs, and ii) the propagation speed of the flat depletion zone. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first microscopic characterization of ICP in CDI systems, and it firmly establishes the existence of nonlinear ion transport dynamics in CDI's bulk electrolyte.

KW - Capacitive deionization

KW - Desalination

KW - Ion concentration polarization

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85061427293&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85061427293&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.desal.2019.01.032

DO - 10.1016/j.desal.2019.01.032

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:85061427293

SP - 14

EP - 24

JO - Desalination

JF - Desalination

SN - 0011-9164

ER -