Nonstructural protein ns1 of influenza virus disrupts mitochondrial dynamics and enhances mitophagy via ulk1 and bnip3

Jae Hwan Lee, Soo Jin Oh, Jeanho Yun, Ok Sarah Shin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) of influenza virus (IFV) is essential for evading interferon (IFN)-mediated antiviral responses, thereby contributing to the pathogenesis of influenza. Mitophagy is a type of autophagy that selectively removes damaged mitochondria. The role of NS1 in IFV-mediated mitophagy is currently unknown. Herein, we showed that overexpression of NS1 protein led to enhancement of mitophagy. Mitophagy induction via carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone treatment in IFV-infected A549 cells led to increased viral replication efficiency, whereas the knockdown of PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) led to the opposite effect on viral replication. Overexpression of NS1 protein led to changes in mitochondrial dynamics, including depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential. In contrast, infection with NS1-deficient virus resulted in impaired mitochondrial fragmentation, subsequent mitolysosomal formation, and mitophagy induction, suggesting an important role of NS1 in mitophagy. Meanwhile, NS1 protein increased the phosphorylation of Unc-51-like autophagy activating kinase 1 (ULK1) and the mitochondrial expression of BCL2-interacting protein 3 (BNIP3), both of which were found to be important for IFV-mediated mitophagy. Overall, these data highlight the importance of IFV NS1, ULK1, and BNIP3 during mitophagy activation.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1845
JournalViruses
Volume13
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Sep

Keywords

  • Antiviral immune responses
  • BNIP3
  • Influenza a virus
  • Mitophagy
  • NS1

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Infectious Diseases
  • Virology

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