Normalized hand grip and back muscle strength as risk factors for incident type 2 diabetes mellitus: 16 years of follow-up in a population-based cohort study

Yoo Jeong Jeon, Seung Ku Lee, Chol Shin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Purpose: Muscle strength is associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, it is controversial whether muscle strength and normalized muscle strength is a risk factor for T2DM. Moreover, the relationship of back muscle strength (BMS) and incident T2DM has not been reported. In this study, we investigated the relationship between HGS, BMS, normalized HGS and BMS, and incident T2DM. Methods: A total of 2699 non-diabetes subjects aged 40–69 years (1313 women and 1386 men) in the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES) Ansan cohort were followed for 16 years. At the baseline and biennial follow-up visits, fasting glucose, postprandial 2-h glucose, clinical examinations, HGS, and BMS were measured by trained interviewers and examiners. HGS and BMS were measured at baseline. The relationships between incident T2DM, HGS, BMS, and normalized HGS and BMS were estimated using Cox proportional hazard regression models after adjusting for the confounding factors. Results: HGS and BMS were not associated with incident T2DM in multivariate analysis. However, the hazard ratio (HR) per one standard deviation (SD) increase in the body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-hip ratio (WHR)-normalized HGS, and BMS was associated with a lower risk for incident T2DM in both women and men after adjusting for the confounding factors (HR = 0.842–0.880-fold for women, p ≤ 0.015; HR = 0.887–0.903-fold for men, p ≤ 0.024). In the sub-analysis of menopause status, the HR per one SD increase in BMI, weight2/3, WC, and WHR-normalized HGS was associated with a lower risk for incident T2DM in both pre-and post-menopausal women after adjusting for the confounding factors (HR = 0.860–0.820-fold for premenopausal, P ≤ 0.006; HR = 0.900–0.867-fold for postmenopausal, p ≤ 0.024). Additionally, we confirmed that the quartile group with higher muscle strength was associated with a lower risk for incident T2DM. Conclusion: The present study suggested that normalized HGS and BMS were associated with a lower risk for the future development of T2DM. Moreover, weak muscle strength in premenopausal women may be the cause of T2DM. Further research is needed to determine whether efforts to improve muscle strength, such as exercise can reduce the risk of T2DM.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)741-750
Number of pages10
JournalDiabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
Volume14
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2021

Keywords

  • Back strength
  • Hand grip strength
  • Incident type 2 diabetes mellitus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Pharmacology

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