Normative study of the category fluency test (CFT) from nationwide data on community-dwelling elderly in Korea

Seung Ho Ryu, Ki Woong Kim, Seolmin Kim, Joon Hyuk Park, Tae Hui Kim, Hyun Ghang Jeong, Jeong Lan Kim, Seok Woo Moon, Jae Nam Bae, Jong Chul Yoon, Il Han Choo, Dong Woo Lee, Sung Man Chang, Jin Hyeong Jhoo, Shin Kyum Kim, Maeng Je Cho

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


Objectives: We determined the influence of demographic characteristics on the categorical verbal fluency and to provided its' normative data for the community-dwelling elderly with diverse educational attainment. Methods: We administered the CFT using the animal category to 3025 (1420 men and 1605 women) non-demented community-dwelling Koreans aged 60-96 years who had educational levels ranging from 0 to 22 years. Results: Age and education were associated significantly with performance of CFT, with education showing the stronger association. Education accounted for 14.0% of CFT score variance and age accounted for 3.2%. However, gender did not influence performance of the test. We present normative data for CFT stratified by age (60-64, 65-69, 70-74, 75-79, 80-84, and ≥85 years) and education (0, 1-3, 4-6, 7-9, 10-12, and ≥13 years). Conclusions: The CFT norms should provide clinically useful data for evaluating elderly people and help improve the interpretation of verbal fluency tasks and allow for greater diagnostic accuracy for cognitive disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)305-309
Number of pages5
JournalArchives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2012 Mar
Externally publishedYes


  • Categorical verbal fluency
  • Demography
  • Normative data

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health(social science)
  • Ageing
  • Gerontology
  • Geriatrics and Gerontology


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