To evaluate the exposure of Koreans to ochratoxin A, we conducted a survey in 2003 for ochratoxin A in various domestic food commodities: 60 polished rices, 22 barleys, 35 wheat flours, 46 beers, and 14 unstrained rice wine (makkolli) samples. They were analyzed for ochratoxin A using immunoaffinity column and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-fluorescence detection, and the positive samples were confirmed using HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry. By combining results from different surveys on the levels of ochratoxin A in selected foods and the consumption patterns, we obtained the Korean probable daily intakes (PDI) of ochratoxin A. The polished rice commodity had the highest mean levels of ochratoxin A, which ranged from 0.2 (not detected, i.e., ND = 0) to 1.0 ng/g (ND = limit of detection, i.e., LOD). The estimated PDI for all Koreans fell into the range of 0.8-4.1 ng/kg bw/day, while for heavy consumers the estimates ranged from 1.7 to 9.1 ng/kg bw/day, which did not exceed the PTDI value (14 ng/kg bw/day). Staple rice is the major contributor (>90%) to the Korean dietary intake of ochratoxin A. On the basis of these estimates, it may be concluded that there is at present no considerable risk of ochratoxin A exposure for the average Korean consumer.
- Estimated daily intakes
- Ochratoxin A
- Polished rice
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)