We aimed to evaluate the relationship between the capillary abnormalities including nonperfusion area (NPA) in optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) images and the recurrence of macular edema (ME) secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) after intravitreal injection of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF; bevacizumab). The records of 40 patients who underwent intravitreal bevacizumab injection for ME secondary to BRVO and had at least six months of follow-up were reviewed. Central retinal thickness (CRT; μm) and macular edema type were evaluated prior to treatment. After ME resolution, nonperfusion areas in the 1 mm (NPA1) and 1–3 mm (NPA3) zones on the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) circle within the superficial capillary plexus (SCP) and deep capillary plexus (DCP) were measured using OCTA images. Furthermore, other microvascular abnormalities in the both SCP and DCP were compared between groups. ME recurred in 25 of 40 (62.5%) eyes. The NPA1 of the SCP and DCP (p = 0.002, 0.004, respectively), NPA3 of the SCP and DCP (p = 0.002, 0.008, respectively), and initial CRT (p = 0.022) differed significantly between eyes with and without ME recurrence. In multivariate logistic regression analyses, the NPA1 of the DCP (OR: 344.718; p = 0.029) and NPA3 of the SCP (OR: 4.072; p = 0.018) were significantly associated with ME recurrence. Other microvascular abnormalities were not significantly different between two groups. The central NPA and parafoveal NPA of the SCP in OCTA images correlated strongly with ME recurrence in BRVO patients after intravitreal anti-VEGF injection.
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