On the Beneficial Roles of Fading and Transmit Diversity in Wireless Power Transfer with Nonlinear Energy Harvesting

Bruno Clercks, Junghoon Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We study the effect of channel fading in Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) and show that fading enhances the RFto- DC conversion efficiency of nonlinear RF energy harvesters. We then develop a new form of signal design for WPT, denoted as Transmit Diversity, that relies on multiple dumb antennas at the transmitter to induce fast fluctuations of the wireless channel. Those fluctuations boost the RF-to-DC conversion efficiency thanks to the energy harvester nonlinearity. In contrast with (energy) beamforming, Transmit Diversity does not rely on Channel State Information at the Transmitter (CSIT) and does not increase the average power at the energy harvester input, though it still enhances the overall end-to-end power transfer efficiency. Transmit Diversity is also combined with recently developed (energy) waveform and modulation to provide further enhancements. The efficacy of the scheme is analyzed using physics-based and curve fitting-based nonlinear models of the energy harvester and demonstrated using circuit simulations, prototyping and experimentation. Measurements with two transmit antennas reveal gains of 50%in harvested DC power over a single transmit antenna setup. The work (again) highlights the crucial role played by the harvester nonlinearity and demonstrates that multiple transmit antennas can be beneficial to WPT even in the absence of CSIT.

Original languageEnglish
JournalIEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
DOIs
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2018 Jan 1
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Transmit Diversity
Fading (radio)
Harvesters
Energy Harvesting
Energy harvesting
Fading
Antennas
Transmitters
Energy
Transmitter
Channel state information
Antenna
Conversion efficiency
Channel State Information
Nonlinearity
Fluctuations
Circuit simulation
Curve fitting
Circuit Simulation
Beamforming

Keywords

  • Array signal processing
  • Diversity reception
  • Energy Beamforming
  • Energy Modulation
  • Energy Waveform
  • Fading
  • Fading channels
  • Modulation
  • Nonlinear Energy Harvesting
  • Radio frequency
  • Transmit Diversity
  • Transmitting antennas
  • Wireless communication
  • Wireless Power Transfer

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Science Applications
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Applied Mathematics

Cite this

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title = "On the Beneficial Roles of Fading and Transmit Diversity in Wireless Power Transfer with Nonlinear Energy Harvesting",
abstract = "We study the effect of channel fading in Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) and show that fading enhances the RFto- DC conversion efficiency of nonlinear RF energy harvesters. We then develop a new form of signal design for WPT, denoted as Transmit Diversity, that relies on multiple dumb antennas at the transmitter to induce fast fluctuations of the wireless channel. Those fluctuations boost the RF-to-DC conversion efficiency thanks to the energy harvester nonlinearity. In contrast with (energy) beamforming, Transmit Diversity does not rely on Channel State Information at the Transmitter (CSIT) and does not increase the average power at the energy harvester input, though it still enhances the overall end-to-end power transfer efficiency. Transmit Diversity is also combined with recently developed (energy) waveform and modulation to provide further enhancements. The efficacy of the scheme is analyzed using physics-based and curve fitting-based nonlinear models of the energy harvester and demonstrated using circuit simulations, prototyping and experimentation. Measurements with two transmit antennas reveal gains of 50{\%}in harvested DC power over a single transmit antenna setup. The work (again) highlights the crucial role played by the harvester nonlinearity and demonstrates that multiple transmit antennas can be beneficial to WPT even in the absence of CSIT.",
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author = "Bruno Clercks and Junghoon Kim",
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N2 - We study the effect of channel fading in Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) and show that fading enhances the RFto- DC conversion efficiency of nonlinear RF energy harvesters. We then develop a new form of signal design for WPT, denoted as Transmit Diversity, that relies on multiple dumb antennas at the transmitter to induce fast fluctuations of the wireless channel. Those fluctuations boost the RF-to-DC conversion efficiency thanks to the energy harvester nonlinearity. In contrast with (energy) beamforming, Transmit Diversity does not rely on Channel State Information at the Transmitter (CSIT) and does not increase the average power at the energy harvester input, though it still enhances the overall end-to-end power transfer efficiency. Transmit Diversity is also combined with recently developed (energy) waveform and modulation to provide further enhancements. The efficacy of the scheme is analyzed using physics-based and curve fitting-based nonlinear models of the energy harvester and demonstrated using circuit simulations, prototyping and experimentation. Measurements with two transmit antennas reveal gains of 50%in harvested DC power over a single transmit antenna setup. The work (again) highlights the crucial role played by the harvester nonlinearity and demonstrates that multiple transmit antennas can be beneficial to WPT even in the absence of CSIT.

AB - We study the effect of channel fading in Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) and show that fading enhances the RFto- DC conversion efficiency of nonlinear RF energy harvesters. We then develop a new form of signal design for WPT, denoted as Transmit Diversity, that relies on multiple dumb antennas at the transmitter to induce fast fluctuations of the wireless channel. Those fluctuations boost the RF-to-DC conversion efficiency thanks to the energy harvester nonlinearity. In contrast with (energy) beamforming, Transmit Diversity does not rely on Channel State Information at the Transmitter (CSIT) and does not increase the average power at the energy harvester input, though it still enhances the overall end-to-end power transfer efficiency. Transmit Diversity is also combined with recently developed (energy) waveform and modulation to provide further enhancements. The efficacy of the scheme is analyzed using physics-based and curve fitting-based nonlinear models of the energy harvester and demonstrated using circuit simulations, prototyping and experimentation. Measurements with two transmit antennas reveal gains of 50%in harvested DC power over a single transmit antenna setup. The work (again) highlights the crucial role played by the harvester nonlinearity and demonstrates that multiple transmit antennas can be beneficial to WPT even in the absence of CSIT.

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KW - Energy Waveform

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KW - Fading channels

KW - Modulation

KW - Nonlinear Energy Harvesting

KW - Radio frequency

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KW - Transmitting antennas

KW - Wireless communication

KW - Wireless Power Transfer

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