There is much interest in developing algorithms based on 3D convolutional neural networks (CNNs) for performing regression and classification with brain imaging data and more generally, with biomedical imaging data. A standard assumption in learning is that the training samples are independently drawn from the underlying distribution. In computer vision, where we have millions of training examples, this assumption is violated but the empirical performance may remain satisfactory. But in many biomedical studies with just a few hundred training examples, one often has multiple samples per participant and/or data may be curated by pooling datasets from a few different institutions. Here, the violation of the independent samples assumption turns out to be more significant, especially in small-to-medium sized datasets. Motivated by this need, we show how 3D CNNs can be modified to deal with dependent samples. We show that even with standard 3D CNNs, there is value in augmenting the network to exploit information regarding dependent samples. We present empirical results for predicting cognitive trajectories (slope and intercept) from morphometric change images derived from multiple time points. With terms which encode dependency between samples in the model, we get consistent improvements over a strong baseline which ignores such knowledge.