Optimization of anti-glycation effect of L-carnitine, pyridoxine hydrochloride and DL-α-tocopheryl acetate in an infant formula model system using response surface methodology

Hye Lim Jung, Mi Hyun Nam, Chung Oui Hong, Min Cheol Pyo, Jun Gu Oh, Young Ki Kim, You Young Choi, Jung Il Kwon, Kwang Won Lee

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1 Citation (Scopus)


The Maillard reaction is a non-enzymatic reaction between amino and carbonyl groups. During milk processing, lactose reacts with milk protein through this reaction. Infant formulas (IFs) are milk-based products processed with heat-treatments, including spray-drying and sterilization. Because IFs contain higher Maillard reaction products (MRPs) than breast milk, formula-fed infants are subject to higher MRP exposure than breast milk-fed ones. In this study, we investigated the optimization of conditions for minimal MRP formation with the addition of L-carnitine (L-car), pyridoxine hydrochloride (PH), and DL-α-tocopheryl acetate (α-T) in an IF model system. MRP formation was monitored by response surface methodology using fluorescence intensity (FI) and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) content. The optimal condition for minimizing the formation of MRPs was with 2.3 μM L-car, 15.8 μM PH, and 20.6 μM α-T. Under this condition, the predicted values were 77.4% FI and 248.7 ppb HMF.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)95-102
Number of pages8
JournalKorean Journal of Food Science and Technology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2015 Feb 1



  • 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural
  • Anti-glycation
  • Infant formula
  • Response surface methodology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Biotechnology
  • Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

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