The Maillard reaction is a non-enzymatic reaction between amino and carbonyl groups. During milk processing, lactose reacts with milk protein through this reaction. Infant formulas (IFs) are milk-based products processed with heat-treatments, including spray-drying and sterilization. Because IFs contain higher Maillard reaction products (MRPs) than breast milk, formula-fed infants are subject to higher MRP exposure than breast milk-fed ones. In this study, we investigated the optimization of conditions for minimal MRP formation with the addition of L-carnitine (L-car), pyridoxine hydrochloride (PH), and DL-α-tocopheryl acetate (α-T) in an IF model system. MRP formation was monitored by response surface methodology using fluorescence intensity (FI) and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) content. The optimal condition for minimizing the formation of MRPs was with 2.3 μM L-car, 15.8 μM PH, and 20.6 μM α-T. Under this condition, the predicted values were 77.4% FI and 248.7 ppb HMF.
- Infant formula
- Response surface methodology
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Food Science
- Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology