The heat-based spray drying process generating the highest level of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) in the infant formula processing was set as a control point from which the levels of AGE markers, N-carboxymethyllysine, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, and fluorescence intensity, can be mitigated. We optimized the parameters, including inlet temperature, feeding rate, and aspirator rate during spray drying, and alternatively optimized food additives, including pyridoxine hydrochloride, dl-α-tocopheryl acetate, and l-carnitine. Using response surface methodology, the optimal condition based on our experimental condition for the inlet temperature, pump rate, and aspirator rate were 148.7 °C, 342.4 mL/h and 28.6 m3/h, respectively, and the optimal conditions of pyridoxine hydrochloride, dl-α-tocopheryl acetate and l-carnitine were 0.99 mg/100 g dry mass (DM), 8 mg/100 g DM and 20.4 mg/100 g DM, respectively. These results suggest that AGEs can be mitigated by controlling the parameters and optimizing the addition of food additives during the spray-drying process.
- Advanced glycation end-products
- Infant formula
- Response surface methodology
- Spray drying
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Food Science
- Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology