Optimum operation of open-loop ground heat exchanger considering subsurface temperature gradient

Hyun Jun Choi, Sangwoo Park, Hyungi Lee, Khanh Linh Nguyen Pham, Hyungkyou Ryu, Hangseok Choi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This paper proposes an optimum operation method for open-loop ground heat exchangers (GHEX) considering the subsurface temperature gradient. A series of thermal response tests and artificial heating/cooling operations was carried out along with monitoring temperatures in the standing column well. The underground temperature naturally increases with depth, but a switch between the cooling and heating modes can alter the temperature distribution. The effect of the mode change was evaluated by performing logarithmic mean temperature difference (LMTD) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses for a reduced (or physical) model with the well depth of 150m. As a result, in the cooling mode, the upstream operation is more efficient than the downstream operation and reduces entering water temperature (EWT) by 2.26°C. On the other hand, in the heating mode, the downstream operation is advantageous over the upstream operation and increases EWT by 3.19°C. According to the results of the LMTD and CFD analysis, the thermal conductivity of the ground formation and the flow direction of water are the most important factors in the open-loop GHEX. Finally, an optimum flow direction with respect to each operation is proposed to enhance its efficiency; thus, a new GHEX system is flexible to a change in the flow direction.

Original languageEnglish
JournalInternational Journal of Energy Research
DOIs
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2015

Fingerprint

Thermal gradients
Heat exchangers
Cooling
Heating
Temperature
Computational fluid dynamics
Water
Dynamic analysis
Thermal conductivity
Temperature distribution
Switches
Monitoring

Keywords

  • Entering water temperature
  • LMTD
  • Open-Loop ground heat exchanger
  • Standing column well
  • Thermal response test

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Fuel Technology
  • Nuclear Energy and Engineering
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment

Cite this

Optimum operation of open-loop ground heat exchanger considering subsurface temperature gradient. / Choi, Hyun Jun; Park, Sangwoo; Lee, Hyungi; Pham, Khanh Linh Nguyen; Ryu, Hyungkyou; Choi, Hangseok.

In: International Journal of Energy Research, 2015.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Choi, Hyun Jun ; Park, Sangwoo ; Lee, Hyungi ; Pham, Khanh Linh Nguyen ; Ryu, Hyungkyou ; Choi, Hangseok. / Optimum operation of open-loop ground heat exchanger considering subsurface temperature gradient. In: International Journal of Energy Research. 2015.
@article{426ad6397ba94c00971ec7206b49f724,
title = "Optimum operation of open-loop ground heat exchanger considering subsurface temperature gradient",
abstract = "This paper proposes an optimum operation method for open-loop ground heat exchangers (GHEX) considering the subsurface temperature gradient. A series of thermal response tests and artificial heating/cooling operations was carried out along with monitoring temperatures in the standing column well. The underground temperature naturally increases with depth, but a switch between the cooling and heating modes can alter the temperature distribution. The effect of the mode change was evaluated by performing logarithmic mean temperature difference (LMTD) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses for a reduced (or physical) model with the well depth of 150m. As a result, in the cooling mode, the upstream operation is more efficient than the downstream operation and reduces entering water temperature (EWT) by 2.26°C. On the other hand, in the heating mode, the downstream operation is advantageous over the upstream operation and increases EWT by 3.19°C. According to the results of the LMTD and CFD analysis, the thermal conductivity of the ground formation and the flow direction of water are the most important factors in the open-loop GHEX. Finally, an optimum flow direction with respect to each operation is proposed to enhance its efficiency; thus, a new GHEX system is flexible to a change in the flow direction.",
keywords = "Entering water temperature, LMTD, Open-Loop ground heat exchanger, Standing column well, Thermal response test",
author = "Choi, {Hyun Jun} and Sangwoo Park and Hyungi Lee and Pham, {Khanh Linh Nguyen} and Hyungkyou Ryu and Hangseok Choi",
year = "2015",
doi = "10.1002/er.3435",
language = "English",
journal = "International Journal of Energy Research",
issn = "0363-907X",
publisher = "John Wiley and Sons Ltd",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Optimum operation of open-loop ground heat exchanger considering subsurface temperature gradient

AU - Choi, Hyun Jun

AU - Park, Sangwoo

AU - Lee, Hyungi

AU - Pham, Khanh Linh Nguyen

AU - Ryu, Hyungkyou

AU - Choi, Hangseok

PY - 2015

Y1 - 2015

N2 - This paper proposes an optimum operation method for open-loop ground heat exchangers (GHEX) considering the subsurface temperature gradient. A series of thermal response tests and artificial heating/cooling operations was carried out along with monitoring temperatures in the standing column well. The underground temperature naturally increases with depth, but a switch between the cooling and heating modes can alter the temperature distribution. The effect of the mode change was evaluated by performing logarithmic mean temperature difference (LMTD) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses for a reduced (or physical) model with the well depth of 150m. As a result, in the cooling mode, the upstream operation is more efficient than the downstream operation and reduces entering water temperature (EWT) by 2.26°C. On the other hand, in the heating mode, the downstream operation is advantageous over the upstream operation and increases EWT by 3.19°C. According to the results of the LMTD and CFD analysis, the thermal conductivity of the ground formation and the flow direction of water are the most important factors in the open-loop GHEX. Finally, an optimum flow direction with respect to each operation is proposed to enhance its efficiency; thus, a new GHEX system is flexible to a change in the flow direction.

AB - This paper proposes an optimum operation method for open-loop ground heat exchangers (GHEX) considering the subsurface temperature gradient. A series of thermal response tests and artificial heating/cooling operations was carried out along with monitoring temperatures in the standing column well. The underground temperature naturally increases with depth, but a switch between the cooling and heating modes can alter the temperature distribution. The effect of the mode change was evaluated by performing logarithmic mean temperature difference (LMTD) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses for a reduced (or physical) model with the well depth of 150m. As a result, in the cooling mode, the upstream operation is more efficient than the downstream operation and reduces entering water temperature (EWT) by 2.26°C. On the other hand, in the heating mode, the downstream operation is advantageous over the upstream operation and increases EWT by 3.19°C. According to the results of the LMTD and CFD analysis, the thermal conductivity of the ground formation and the flow direction of water are the most important factors in the open-loop GHEX. Finally, an optimum flow direction with respect to each operation is proposed to enhance its efficiency; thus, a new GHEX system is flexible to a change in the flow direction.

KW - Entering water temperature

KW - LMTD

KW - Open-Loop ground heat exchanger

KW - Standing column well

KW - Thermal response test

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84949671421&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84949671421&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1002/er.3435

DO - 10.1002/er.3435

M3 - Article

JO - International Journal of Energy Research

JF - International Journal of Energy Research

SN - 0363-907X

ER -