Ion concentration polarization (ICP) is one of the preconcentration techniques which can acquire a high preconcentration factor. Still, the main hurdles of ICP are its instability and low efficiency under physiological conditions with high ionic strength and abundant biomolecules. Here, we suggested a sequentially driven ICP process, which enhanced the electrokinetic force required for preconcentration, enabling enrichment of highly ionic raw samples without increasing the electric field. We acquired a 13-fold preconcentration factor (PF) in human serum using a paper-based origami structure consisting of multiple layers for three-dimensional sequential ICP (3D seq-ICP). Moreover, we demonstrated a paper-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) by 3D seq-ICP using tau protein, showing a 6-fold increase in ELISA signals.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biomedical Engineering