PURPOSE: To compare the intraocular pressure and hypotony outcomes of primary phakic trabeculectomies with no mitomycin C (MMC), shorter MMC, and longer MMC exposure. METHODS: We evaluated primary phakic trabeculectomies with no MMC (36 eyes of 36 patients), 0.5- to 1-minute MMC (50 eyes of 50 patients), and 3- to 5-minute MMC (38 eyes of 38 patients) at the concentration of 0.5 mg/ml. Successful trabeculectomy was defined as an intraocular pressure of 21 mm Hg or less without development of a marked visual acuity loss associated with prolonged hypotony (intraocular pressure < 6 mm Hg over 3 months) and without the need for additional surgery to control intraocular pressure or treat postoperative complications. RESULTS: The three groups were similar in demographics, preoperative intraocular pressure, and medical dependency. However, the incidence of hypotony during the postoperative periods of 3 to 12 months was significantly higher in the 3- to 5-minute MMC group (P < .05, chi-square test). Severe visual acuity loss associated with hypotony was also more frequently found in the 3- to 5- minute MMC group than in the 0.5- to 1-minute (P = .009, chi-square test) group or the control group (P = .014, chi-square test). In addition, the success probabilities were significantly different among the three groups (P = .001, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis with log-rank test) and were the highest in the 0.5- to 1-minute MMC group and the lowest in the 3- to 5- minute MMC group. CONCLUSION: Shorter application (0.5 to 1 minute) of MMC appears to be optimal for the successful outcome of primary phakic trabeculectomy compared with no MMC or longer application of MMC at a concentration of 0.5 mg/ml.
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