Objective: To assess the sizes and configurations of thermal zones after overlapping ablations using a coaxial radiofrequency (RF) electrode and multiple cannulae in ex-vivo bovine liver. Materials and Methods: For ablation procedures, a coaxial RF electrode and introducer set was used. Employing real-time ultrasound guidance and overlapping techniques in explanted, fresh bovine liver, we created five kinds of thermal zones with one (n=10), two (n=8), four (n=3), and six ablation spheres (n=3). Following ablation, MR images were obtained and the dimensions of all thermal zones were measured on the longitudinal or transverse section of specimens. The shape of the composite ablation zones was evaluated using three-dimensional MR image reconstruction. Results: At gross pathologic examination of ten single-ablation zones (spheres), the long-axis (transverse) and short-axis lengths of zones ranged from 3.7 to 4.4 (mean, 4.1) cm and from 3.5 to 4.0 (mean, 3.7) cm, respectively. The long-axis (transverse) and short-axis lengths of double-ablation zones (cylinders) with 23% overlap ranged from 7.0 to 7.7 (mean, 7.3) cm and from 3.0 to 3.9 (mean, 3.5) cm, respectively; those with 58% overlap ranged from 6.0 to 6.4 (mean, 6.2) cm and from 3.8 to 4.6 (mean, 4.3) cm, respectively. The long-axis (diagonal) and short-axis lengths on a transverse section of four-ablation zones (cakes) ranged from 8.5 to 9.7 (mean, 9.1) cm and from 3.0 to 4.1 (mean, 3.7) cm, respectively. Gross pathologic examination of three composite six-ablation zones (spheres) showed that the long-axis (diagonal) and short-axis lengths of zones ranged from 9.0 to 9.9 (mean, 9.4) cm and from 6.8 to 7.5 (mean, 7.2) cm, respectively. T2-weighted MR images depicted low-signal thermal zones containing multiple curvilinear and spotty regions of hyperintensity. Conclusion: Using a coaxial RF electrode and multiple cannulae, together with ultrasound guidance and precise overlapping ablation techniques, we successfully created predictable thermal zones in ex-vivo bovine liver.
- Liver, interventional procedure
- Radiofrequency (RF) ablation
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging