Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems with a large number of base station antennas, often called massive MIMO, have received much attention in academia and industry as a means to improve the spectral efficiency, energy efficiency, and processing complexity of next generation cellular systems. The mobile communication industry has initiated a feasibility study of massive MIMO systems to meet the increasing demand of future wireless systems. Field trials of the proof-of-concept systems have demonstrated the potential gain of the Full-Dimension MIMO (FD-MIMO), an official name for the MIMO enhancement in the 3rd generation partnership project (3GPP). 3GPP initiated standardization activity for the seamless integration of this technology into current 4G LTE systems. In this article, we provide an overview of FD-MIMO systems, with emphasis on the discussion and debate conducted on the standardization process of Release 13. We present key features for FD-MIMO systems, a summary of the major issues for the standardization and practical system design, and performance evaluations for typical FD-MIMO scenarios.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Computer Science Applications
- Computer Networks and Communications
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering